Table 3

Factors associated with change in utility (utility at day-7 minus baseline)*

UnivariateMultivariate predictiveMultivariate explanatory
Coefficient95% CIP valuesCoefficient95% CIP valuesCoefficient95% CIP values
Predictive variables
 Age0.001−0.001 to 0.0030.52
 Male gender0.01−0.04 to 0.060.70
 Zubrod 2–4 vs 0–10.036−0.012 to 0.0840.14
 Baseline utility−0.014−0.198 to 0.1700.88
 Baseline Borg0.0130.004 to 0.0230.010.0120.002 to 0.0220.015
 Urgent/emergent vs elective0.02−0.120.51
 Time from diagnosis to procedure (weeks)−0.0001−0.0002 to 0.00010.41
 Comorbidities
   COPD−0.048−0.118 to 0.0230.18−0.079−0.150 to −0.0080.03−0.069−0.136 to −0.0020.05
   Cardiovascular0.015−0.041 to 0.0710.59
   Diabetes0.036−0.021 to 0.0930.21
  Second primary solid tumour−0.058−0.136 to 0.0200.14
 Cancer type
   Lung0.02−0.028 to 0.0700.40
   Other malignancies<ref>
 Initial treatment type
   Surgery0.007−0.057 to 0.0700.84
   Chemotherapy0.016−0.052 to 0.0850.65
   Radiation therapy0.04−0.044 to 0.1240.35
  No treatment<ref>
  Any prior therapeutic bronchoscopy−0.125−0.211 to −0.0390.01−0.111−0.199 to −0.0230.02−0.102−0.186 to −0.0180.02
 indication(s) for therapeutic bronchoscopy†
   Tracheoesophageal fistula−0.074−0.198 to 0.0500.24
   Haemoptysis0.007−0.052 to 0.0670.81
  Number of bronchopulmonary segments obstructed−0.002−0.006 to 0.0020.34
 Location of most proximal obstruction
   Trachea−0.019−0.099 to 0.0610.65
   Bilateral mainstem−0.002−0.114 to 0.1100.97
   Right mainstem0.048−0.030 to 0.1260.22
  Left mainstem0.026−0.058 to 0.1100.55
  Right bronchus intermedius0.019−0.077 to 0.1150.70
   Lobar only<ref>
 Obstruction type of most proximal location
   Endobronchial<ref>
   Extrinsic−0.025−0.082 to 0.0320.39
   Mixed−0.008−0.105 to 0.0550.85
Explanatory variables
 ∆Borg−0.023−0.024<0.001−0.021−0.033 to −0.009<0.001
 Ventilation type
   Jet ventilation0.015−0.065 to 0.0950.72
   Volume cycled<ref>
 Bronchoscopy type
   Rigid and flexible0.006−0.084 to 0.0960.89
   Flexible only<ref>
 Treatment modalities
   Any laser0.037−0.028 to 0.1020.26
   Electrocautery0.047−0.004 to 0.0980.07
   Argon plasma0.025−0.024 to 0.0740.33
   Cryorecanalisation0.0760.019 to 0.1330.01
   Microdebrider−0.015−0.070 to 0.0400.61
   Rigid ‘coring’0.068−0.008 to 0.1440.08
   Dilation−0.064−0.123 to −0.0050.04
 Stent at first procedure−0.031−0.082 to 0.0200.23
 Stent type placed
   Aero0.003−0.075 to 0.0810.94
   Y-Stent0.018−0.064 to 0.1000.66
 Technical success
   Complete or partial0.003−0.075 to 0.0810.94
   Failed<ref>
 Postprocedure treatment
   Surgery−0.097−0.220 to 0.0260.13
   Chemotherapy−0.002−0.051 to 0.0470.93
   Radiation therapy0.01−0.039 to 0.0590.69
  • *Day-7 utility score is 7 days after the study entry bronchoscopy. If the patient had subsequent bronchoscopies, these were not included in this analysis.

  • †Patients could have one or more comorbidities, so each comorbidity is dichotomous. For therapeutic bronchoscopy indication(s), patients could have more than one indication for bronchoscopy, but one of them had to be for malignant central airway obstruction.