Table 3

Model-estimated means and mean differences over time in psychosocial outcomes between groups

Outcome and time pointModel-estimated means (SE)*Mean change from baseline (95% CI)
Education†Mobile mindfulness‡Telephone mindfulness§Education†Mobile mindfulness‡Telephone mindfulness§
PHQ-9¶
 Baseline7.1 (1.1)8.2 (0.8)7.6 (0.8)
 1 month5.8 (1.1)4.4 (0.9)4.6 (1.4)−1.3 (−3.5 to 0.9)−3.8 (−5.6 to −1.9)−2.4 (−4.2 to −0.7)
 3 months4.0 (1.1)3.4 (0.9)3.1 (1.4)−3.0 (−5.3 to 0.8)−4.8 (−6.6 to −2.9)−3.9 (−5.6 to −2.2)
GAD-7¶
 Baseline4.5 (1.0)4.8 (0.7)5.1 (0.7)
 1 month4.1 (1.0)3.4 (0.8)2.8 (1.2)−0.4 (−2.3 to 1.5)−1.4 (−3.0 to 0.1)−1.7 (−3.1 to −0.2)
 3 months3.9 (1.0)2.8 (0.8)2.9 (1.2)−0.6 (−2.5 to 1.3)−2.1 (−3.7 to −0.5)−1.6 (−3.0 to −0.1)
PTSS¶
 Baseline21.4 (2.4)22.1 (1.9)21.9 (1.9)
 1 month20.4 (2.5)20.5 (2.0)19.7 (3.0)−1.0 (−5.4 to 3.5)−1.7 (−5.3 to 2.0)−1.7 (−5.2 to 1.7)
 3 months17.9 (2.5)19.6 (2.1)19.2 (3.0)−3.5 (−8.0 to 1.0)−2.6 (−6.3 to 1.2)−2.2 (−5.6 to 1.2)
PHQ-15¶
 Baseline11.0 (0.9)10.1 (0.7)10.1 (0.7)
 1 month7.6 (0.9)6.9 (0.8)8.4 (1.2)−3.4 (−5.4 to 1.5)−3.1 (−4.8 to −1.5)−2.6 (−4.1 to −1.1)
 3 months6.3 (1.0)4.7 (0.8)7.3 (1.2)−4.8 (−6.8 to 2.7)−5.3 (−7.0 to −3.7)−3.7 (−5.2 to −2.2)
QOL VAS**
 Baseline71.8 (4.3)80.4 (3.3)74.3 (3.3)
 1 month72.5 (4.4)72.9 (3.7)72.6 (5.7)0.7 (−8.6 to 9.9)−7.5 (−15.1 to 0.2)0.8 (−6.4 to 8.0)
 3 months72.5 (4.5)77.6 (3.8)75.0 (5.7)0.7 (−8.9 to 10.1)−2.7 (−10.6 to 5.1)3.2 (−4.0 to 10.4)
CAMS-R**
 Baseline30.1 (1.5)31.9 (1.1)31.2 (1.1)
 1 month30.0 (1.5)31.0 (1.2)28.7 (1.8)−0.1 (−2.9 to 2.6)−0.9 (−3.2 to 1.3)−1.4 (−3.5 to 0.8)
 3 months28.8 (1.5)32.6 (1.3)29.2 (1.8)−1.3 (−4.1 to 1.5)0.7 (−1.7 to 3.0)−0.9 (−3.1 to 1.3)
Brief COPE**
 Baseline13.8 (1.0)14.5 (0.7)13.0 (0.7)
 1 month13.1 (1.0)14.6 (0.8)15.2 (1.2)−0.8 (−2.5 to 1.0)0.05 (−1.4 to 1.5)1.4 (0.04 to 2.7)
 3 months13.6 (1.0)14.1 (0.8)15.2 (1.2)−0.2 (−2.0 to 1.6)−0.5 (−1.9 to 1.0)1.3 (−0.03 to 2.7)
  • *Based on general linear models; no adjustment for covariates. Model-estimated means are based on all patients, not just those with observations at 1 and 3 months.

  • †n=18 at baseline, n=17 at 1 month and n=16 at 3 months.

  • ‡n=31 at baseline, n=24 at 1 month and n=22 at 3 months.

  • §n=31 at baseline, n=28 at 1 month and n=28 at 3 months.

  • ¶Negative scores represent improvement.

  • **Positive scores represent improvement.

  • Brief COPE, Brief coping inventory; CAMS-R, Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised Mindfulness instrument; GAD-7, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item depression scale; PHQ-10, Patient Health Questionnaire 10-item physical symptom scale; PHQ-15, Patient Health Questionnaire 15-item physical symptom scale; PTSS, Post-Traumatic Stress Scale; QOL VAS, quality of life 100-point visual analogue scale.