Table 3

Acute respiratory infections and asymptomatic single new virus detections, risk ratios and attributable fractions by respiratory virus in 151 children from the ORChID birth cohort (n=8202)

VirusARI-associated single new virus detections
N=3894 swabs
Asymptomatic single new virus detections
N=4308 swabs
Risk ratio*
(95% CI); P value
Attributable fraction in the exposed (%, 95% CI)†
n (%)n (%)
Single new detections
 All HRV679 (17.4)‡328 (7.6) 1.5 (1.4 to  1.6); <0.001 34 (29 to  38)
 HRV-A289 (7.4)122 (2.8) 1.5 (1.4 to  1.6); <0.001 34 (28 to  39)
 HRV-B49 (1.3)41 (1.0)1.2 (0.9 to  1.4);  0.1714 (−6 to  30)
 HRV-C328 (8.4)137 (3.2) 1.5 (1.4 to  1.7); <0.001 35 (30 to  40)
 IFV-A9 (0.2)2 (0.0) 1.7 (1.3 to  2.3); <0.001 42 (23 to  57)
 IFV-B2 (0.1)2 (0.0)1.1 (0.4 to  2.8);  0.906 (− 150 to  64)
 PIV-16 (0.2)1 (0.0) 1.8 (1.3 to  2.5); <0.001 45 (26 to  59)
 PIV-23 (0.1)0 (0.0)n/cn/c
 PIV-332 (0.8)11 (0.3) 1.5 (1.3 to  1.9); <0.001 35 (21 to  46)
 RSV-A29 (0.7)14 (0.3) 1.4 (1.2 to  1.7); <0.001 30 (16 to  42)
 RSV-B19 (0.5)3 (0.1) 1.8 (1.5 to  2.2); <0.001 46 (35 to  54)
 HCoV-OC4326 (0.7)8 (0.2) 1.6 (1.3 to  2.0); <0.001 38 (25 to  50)
 HCoV-NL6327 (0.7)8 (0.2) 1.6 (1.3 to  2.0); <0.001 37 (21 to  49)
 HCoV-229E3 (0.1)4 (0.1)0.9 (0.4 to  2.2);  0.83−10 (−161 to  54)
 HCoV-HKU112 (0.3)10 (0.2)1.2 (0.8 to  1.7);  0.4214 (− 24 to  40)
 HMPV12 (0.3)4 (0.1) 1.6 (1.2 to  2.1);  0.001 37 (16 to  53)
 AdV28 (0.7)16 (0.4) 1.4 (1.1 to  1.7);  0.008 29 (12 to  42)
 WU-PyV16 (0.7)15 (0.3)1.1 (0.8 to  1.6);  0.629 (− 31 to  36)
 KI-PyV23 (0.6)34 (0.8)0.9 (0.6 to  1.2);  0.37−17 (−65 to  17)
 HBoV-135 (0.9)31 (0.7)1.1 (0.9 to  1.4);  0.3011 (− 12 to  29)
 Any virus961 (24.6)491 (11.4) 1.5 (1.4 to  1.6); <0.001 35 (31 to  38)
New codetections§
 ≥2 viruses168 (4.3)62 (1.4) 1.6 (1.4 to  1.7); <0.001 37 (30 to  42)
  • Statistically significant risk ratios and attributable fractions have been highlighted in bold.

  • *Adjusted for repeated measures within children using sandwich estimators.

  • †CI for attributable fractions were calculated from CI for corresponding risk ratios.

  • ‡Individual HRV species do not add up to ‘all HRV’ detections because of a combination of more than one HRV species detected within the same ARI episode, or single new virus detection episodes where HRV-positive specimens could not be sequenced.

  • §Includes 219 (160 symptomatic) new codetections and another 11 codetections with 2 and 3 viruses codetected, respectively where at least 1 codetected virus was a new detection.

  • ARI, acute respiratory infection; AdV, adenovirus; HBoV-1, human bocavirus-1; HCoV, human coronavirus; HMPV, human metapneumovirus; HRV, human rhinovirus; IFV, influenza virus; KI-PyV, KI polyomavirus; n/c, not calculable as there were no cases in the asymptomatic group; PIV, parainfluenza virus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; WU-PyV, WU polyomavirus.