Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients

VariablesIntervention group (n=110)Control group (n=109)
Age (years)66±865±7
Gender (F/M)58/5266/43
BMI (kg/m2)25±624±6
FEV1 (%predicted)40±1543±17
FVC (%predicted)70±1977±23
FEV1/FVC (%)45±1445±13
TLC (%predicted)123±25124±24
FRC (%predicted)180±47179±44
RV (%predicted)213±64206±70
DLCO (%predicted)42±1941±21
PImax (cm H2O)52±1451±12
PImax (%predicted)51±1552±14
Endurance breathing time (s)243±109242±93
Inspiratory load (%PImax)56±1256±15
Peak VO2 (%predicted)66±2863±26
Peak work rate (%predicted)45±2545±22
Endurance cycle time (s)262±124287±159
6MWD (m)346±118355±104
6MWD (%predicted)56±2057±18
Quadriceps strength (%predicted)70±2381±36
Hand grip strength (%predicted)87±2488±25
PA (steps/day)3679±22344238±1853
CRQ dyspnoea15±615±5
  • Data are presented as mean ±SD.

  • 6MWD, 6 min walking distance; BMI, body mass index; CRQ, chronic respiratory questionnaire; DLCO, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide; FRC, functional residual capacity; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale; PA, physical activity; peak VO2, peak oxygen uptake; peak work rate, peak power output during a maximal incremental cycle ergometry test; PImax, maximal inspiratory mouth pressure; %predicted, percentage of the predicted normal value; RV, residual volume; TLC, total lung capacity.