Table 4

Changes after exercise training in body composition, physical activity, sleep and cardiometabolic parameters in the three intervention groups (ITT analysis)

Outcomes (change in ITT analysis)ERGOERGO+RMTERGO+NIVP value
BMI (kg/m2)−0.2 (1.5)−0.2 (2.2)−0.6 (1.7)0.72
FFMI (kg/m2)−0.1 (1.1)0.9 (1.9)−0.4 (0.8)0.02
Waist circumference (cm)−0.5 (4.8)0.7 (6.2)−5.3 (6.7)0.01
Hip circumference (cm)1.35 (6.2)−1.5 (6.9)−2.6 (5.9)0.17
Neck circumference (cm)1.00 (2.6)1.3 (2.7)−1.1 (1.5)0.01
Physical activity
  Daily step count1035 (2938)−73 (3325)657 (2563)0.68
  METs per day0.00 (0.13)0.00 (0.15)0.05 (0.65)0.56
  Supine position (min/day)15.9 (51.5)0 (81.9)−60.5 (129.3)0.10
  Sleep duration (min/day)28.8 (96.1)13.3 (58.5)−21.8 (89.7)0.19
Self-measured blood pressure
  Systolic BP (mm Hg)−0.7 (10.3)−1.3 (6.6)−9.5 (10.8)*0.01
  Diastolic BP (mm Hg)−1.7 (6.7)4.6 (9.0)−5.9 (7.9)*0.001
  HR (beat/min)−1.3 (6.7)1.8 (14.0)−5.6 (8.0)0.11
PWV (m/s)−0.5 (1.8)−0.6 (1.1)−0.5 (2.2)0.98
RH-PAT0.0 (0.2)0.0 (0.2)+0.1 (0.2)0.65
Metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers
  Total cholesterol (g/L)0.1 (0.3)0.0 (0.3)0.0 (0.2)0.27
  LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio−0.1 (0.6)−0.2 (0.8)−0.2 (0.8)0.93
  Triglycerides (g/L)0.0 (0.3)−0.1 (0.4)−0.1 (0.3)0.94
  Glucose (mmol/L)−0.3 (1.3)−0.8 (2.1)−0.1 (0.5)0.40
  Insulin (µUI/mL)−5.0 (15.4)−8.5 (28.0)71.0 (306.1)0.32
  Insulin (µUI/mL)†−5.0 (15.4)−2.8 (14.0)−3.17 (6.1)0.59
  HOMA index−2.0 (6.1)−3.8 (10.0)25.9 (110.7)0.31
  HOMA index†−2.0 (6.1)−2.3 (8.1)−0.9 (1.7)0.87
  Free fatty acids (mmol/L)−42 (242)−63 (242)−60 (195)0.92
  hsCRP (mg/L)−1.3 (2.2)−2.1 (4.1)−0.7 (1.6)0.50
  • Data are mean (SD).

  • *Significant post hoc test with Bonferroni correction (significance at P=0.0083).

  • †Results without outliers (n=51) (outliers were two patients with insulin level >100 µUI/mL together with insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnostics).

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ERGO, ergocycle training; FFMI, fat-free mass index; ITT, intention to treat; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment=insulinaemia (mU/L)×glycaemia (mmol/L)/22.5; HR, heart rate; hsCRP, high sensitive C-reactive protein; LDL/HDL, low density lipid to high density lipids ratio; METs, metabolic equivalent; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; PWV, pulse wave velocity; RH-PAT, reactive hyperaemia peripheral arterial tonometry; RMT, respiratory muscle training; SBP, systolic blood pressure.