Table 1

Characteristics of included randomised clinical trials

SourcePatients (n)Intervention*Control*High-risk PE includedAge, mean (range or SD), yearsFollow-up, dMale, n (%)All-cause mortalityMajor bleedingICHRecurrent VTE
Meyer et al 6 1005Tenecteplase (30–50 mg)PlaceboNo66.2 (15.3)30473 (47%)YesYesYesYes
Kline et al 16 83TenecteplasePlaceboNo55.4 (14)549 (59.0)YesYesYesYes
Becattini et al 17 58Tenecteplase (30–50 mg)PlaceboNo68.1 (1.9)713 (22.4)YesYesYesYes
Konstantinides et al 18 256Alteplase (100 mg)PlaceboNo62.1 (10.5)30122 (47.6)YesYesYesYes
Goldhaber et al 19 101rt-PA (100 mg)PlaceboNo58.5 (17)1444 (44.0)YesYesYesYes
Dalla-Volta et al 20 36Alteplase (100 mg)PlaceboNo64.7 (12.5)3012 (33.0)YesYesYesYes
Levine et al 21 58Alteplase (0.6 mg/kg of ideal body weight)PlaceboNo61.5 (2.7)1029 (54.5)YesYesYesYes
PIOPED22 13Alteplase (40–80 mg)PlaceboNo58.5 (15.8)79 (55.6)YesYesYesNo
Marini et al 23 30Urokinase (800 000 IU for 12 hours/day for 3 days or 3 300 000 IU for 12 hours)PlaceboNo53 (23–72)11 (44)YesYesYesYes
Ly et al 24 25Streptokinase (250 000 IU loading dose, then 100 000 IU/hours for 72 hours)PlaceboYes53.2 (23–70)1011 (44.0)YesYesNoNo
Tibbutt et al 25 30Streptokinase (600 000 IU over 30 min through PA catheter followed by 100 000 U/hours intravenous for 72 hours)PlaceboYes48.7 (25–71)315 (50.0)YesYesNoNo
UPET26 160Urokinase (2000 U/lb, then 2000 U/lb/hour for 12 hours)PlaceboYes1492 (57.3)YesYesYesYes
Fasullo et al 27 72Alteplase (100 mg)PlaceboNo56.0 (16.1)18041 (56.9)YesYesYesYes
Jerjes-Sanchez et al 28 8Streptokinase (1500 000 IU)PlaceboYes51 (22.9)1–35 (63.0)YesYesYesNo
Dotter et al 29 31Streptokinse (2000 000 to 11 000 000 IU)PlaceboYesYes14 ‡YesYesYesYes
Taherkahni et al 30 50Alteplase (100 mg) or streptokinase
(1500 000 IU)
PlaceboNo55.7 (12.4)720 (40.0)YesYesYesNo
Sharifi et al 31 121t-PA (50 mg)PlaceboNoIntervention: 589
Control: 5910
84055 (45.5)YesYesYesYes
Kucher et al 32 59rt-PA (10–20 mg through PA catheter)PlaceboNo63 (14)9028 (47.5)YesYesYesYes
Goldhaber et al 33 90rt-PA (100 mg)rt-PA (0.6 mg/kg with a maximum dose of 50 mg)YesIntervention: 5317
Control: 5816
1446 (51.1)YesYesYesYes
Sors et al 34 53Alteplase (100 mg)Alteplase (0.6 mg/kg with a maximum dose of 50 mg)YesIntervention: 6912
Control: 6717
Hospital stay23 (43.4)YesYesYesYes
Wang et al 35 118rt-PA (100 mg)rt-PA (50 mg)YesIntervention: 51.9 (13.5)
Control: 55.3 (14.1)
69 (58.5)YesYesYesYes
Abdelsamad et al 36 40Streptokinase (1000 000 IU over 1 hour)Streptokinase (250 000 IU over 30 min, then 100 000 IU/hour over 24 hours)NoNA NAYesYesNoNo
  • *Patients also received standard anticoagulation.

  • †Precise ages of patients not provided; 50.6%of patients were younger than 50 years and 49.4% of patients 50 years or older.

  • ‡Unspecified.

  • ICH, intracraneal haemorrhage; IU, international units.; rt-PA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; VTE, venous thromboembolism.