Table 3

Comparison of characteristics measured at CARDIA Y10 (mean age of 35 years) between the groups with and without rapid FEV1 decline (over subsequent 10 years)

Characteristics at Y10Rapid FEV1 decline (n=754)Non-rapid FEV1 decline (n=1504)p Value
Age (in years)35.3±3.734.8±3.60.001
Male49.9%41.1%<0.001
Black race45.8%42.5%0.15
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.3±5.326.1±5.40.46
Low socioeconomic status41.0%35.7%0.01
Education (in years)14.5±2.315.2±2.5<0.001
Never smokers59.6%64.6%0.02
Pack-years3.7±6.82.7±5.7<0.001
Self-reported low level of physical activity19.0%19.0%1.00
Family history of diabetes mellitus24.0%27.8%0.04
Baseline FEV1 (in millilitersmL)3630±7903400±760<0.001
Percent predicted FEV1102.3±12.398.9±11.8<0.001
Baseline FVC (in millilitersmL)4520±10204200±1000<0.001
Percent predicted FVC100.5±13.896.4±13.2<0.001
Baseline FEV1/FVC82±682±60.48
Metabolic syndrome0%0%1.00
Large waist circumference13.2%13.3%1.00
High plasma triglyceride5.8%7.3%0.22
Low plasma HDL cholesterol29.7%31.3%0.44
Hypertension11.4%6.2%0.001
Elevated serum glucose0.8%1.0%0.82
  • Note 1: Definitions: Rapid FEV1 decline group is the tertile with greatest decline in FEV1 between CARDIA Y10 and Y20 and the rest constitute the non-rapid decline group; low socioeconomic status is defined by total combined family income <$35 000 in the prior year; low-level of physical activity was self-reported as level 1 or 2 in a five-item questionnaire that compared individuals to others in the same age and sex; metabolic syndrome and its components are defined in the online data supplementary file 1. Family history of diabetes mellitus was defined by self-report of presence of diabetes mellitus in any first degree relative.

  • CARDIA, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.