Table 1

Comparison of characteristics measured at CARDIA Y10 (mean age of 35 years) between groups with and without the metabolic syndrome at or before Y10

CharacteristicsMetabolic syndrome present at any time at or before Y10 (n=261)Metabolic syndrome absent at all times at or before Y10 (n=2258)p Value
Age (in years)36.1±3.535.0±3.6<0.001
Male53.2%44.0%0.001
Black race52.5%43.6%0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)35.1±6.526.2±5.30.001
Low socioeconomic status50.8%37.4%<0.001
Education (in years)14.0±2.515.0±2.50.001
Self-reported low level of physical activity37.1%19.0%<0.001
Never smokers59.2%62.9%0.10
Pack-years4.5±7.53.0±6.10.003
Family history of diabetes mellitus41.3%23.5%<0.001
Baseline FEV1 (in millilitersmL)3314±7923477±7780.001
Per cent predicted FEV193.8±12.6100.0±12.1<0.001
Baseline FVC (in millilitersmL)4147±10574338±10190.005
Per cent predicted FVC93.4±13.497.8±13.5<0.001
FEV1/FVC0.84±0.20.83±0.110.30
Metabolic syndrome68.2%0%<0.001
 Large waist circumference77.8%13.3%<0.001
 High plasma triglyceride47.7%6.8%<0.001
 Low plasma HDL cholesterol82.4%30.8%<0.001
 Hypertension51.0%8.0%<0.001
 Elevated serum glucose22.2%1.0%<0.001
  • Definitions: metabolic syndrome is defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria at one or more of CARDIA years (0, 2, 5, 7 or 10). Low socioeconomic status is defined by total combined family income of <$35 000 in the prior year. Low level of physical activity was self-reported as level 1 or 22 in a five-item questionnaire that compared individuals with others in the same age and sex. Family history of diabetes mellitus was defined by self-report of presence of diabetes mellitus in any first-degree relative.

  • CARDIA, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1s; FVC, forced vital capacity; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.