Table 5

Rapid decline in lung function between CARDIA Y10 and Y20 (mean ages of 35–45 years) is temporally associated with CT-assessed intrathoracic visceral adiposity at CARDIA Y25 (mean age 50 years)

Statistical modelIntrathoracic visceral adiposityIntra-abdominal visceral adiposityAbdominal subcutaneous adiposityAbdominal intramuscular adiposityNon-alcoholic fatty liver
Stbp ValueStbp ValueStbp ValueStbp ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Rapid decline in FEV1
 Unadjusted0.18<0.0010.13<0.0010.060.0060.13<0.0011.45 (1.03 to 2.04)0.03
 Adjusted* 0.09<0.0010.030.150.010.570.030.181.03 (1.72 to 1.49)0.87
Rapid decline in FVC
 Unadjusted0.20<0.0010.16<0.0010.12<0.0010.16<0.0011.30 (0.92 to 1.83)0.14
 Adjusted* 0.09<0.0010.030.120.010.400.030.170.86 (0.59 to 1.25)0.43
  • Standardised beta (β) (Stb) was calculated, using logarithmically transformed continuous adiposity variables because of non-normal distribution. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was studied as a categorical variable.

  • Note 1: There was no significant interaction between sex and rapid decline on visceral adiposity measures (see table E1).

  • Note 2: Definitions of regional adiposity are provided in the text.

  • Note 3: Rapid lung function decline was measured between CARDIA Y10 and Y20 as the tertile with the greatest decline in lung function and was compared with the group including subjects in the bottom two tertiles. Rapid FEV1 and FVC decline between CARDIA Y10 and Y20 was defined by 44.2 mL/year and 48.1 mL/year, respectively.

  • *Adjusted model included standard covariates (ie, age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, number of education years, physical activity level, current smoking, pack-years of smoking) plus BMI, all measured at CARDIA Y20. The BMI value was significantly higher in the rapid FEV1 decline group than the non-rapid FEV 1  decline group (29.4±7.6 vs 27.8±5.8 kg/m2 p<0.001).

  • BMI, body mass index; CARDIA, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity.