Table 2

Metabolic syndrome at or before CARDIA Y10 (mean age 35 years) is temporally associated with rapid decline in FVC over subsequent 10 years

Rapid FEV1 declineUnadjusted modelAdjusted model*Rapid FVC declineUnadjusted modelAdjusted model*
%OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Metabolic syndrome present (n=261/2519)36.81.18
(0.91 to 1.55) 
(0.85 to  1.49) 
(1.07 to 1.81) 
(1.02 to 1.78) 
Metabolic syndrome absent
  • Note 1: The adjusted model was rerun including additional covariate BMI at Y10 in an exploratory model. For separate analyses using rapid decline in FEV1 and FVC as outcomes, additional adjustment for BMI did not change the results for rapid decline in FEV1 as outcome (p=0.47) but changed the results for rapid decline in FVC as outcome (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.40, p=0.86), while BMI itself was a significant predictor (p<0.001). The exploratory model including covariate BMI at Y10 was rerun, also including current smoking and pack-years at Y15 and at Y20; this approach did not further change the results for rapid decline in FEV1 (p=0.46) or FVC (p=0.98) as outcomes.

  • Note 2: There was no interaction between sex and the metabolic syndrome on rapid decline in FVC (unadjusted sex interaction p=0.47, respectively).

  • Note 3: Rapid decline was measured between CARDIA Y10 and Y20 as the tertile with the greatest decline in lung function and was compared with the group including subjects in the bottom two tertiles. Rapid FEV1 and FVC decline was defined by cutpoints of 44.4 mL/year and 48.6 mL/year, respectively. Analyses with decline in lung function as continuous and ternary variables showed similar results and are presented in tables E-II and E-III, respectively, in the online data supplementary file 1.

  • *Adjusted model includes standard covariates, all measured at Y10.

  • BMI, body mass index; CARDIA, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity.