Table 2

HRs for the association between opium use and respiratory disease mortality by type of opiate used, route of administration and cumulative use

All respiratory diseases Malignant respiratory diseases Non-malignant respiratory diseases
No. of participants (deaths)Cox HR* (95% CI)No. of participants (deaths)Cox HR (95% CI)No. of participants (deaths)Cox HR (95% CI)
Opium use
 Never users41 558 (164)Reference41 558 (42)Reference41 558 (122)Reference
 Ever users8487 (167)3.13 (2.42 to 4.04)8487 (43)1.96 (1.18 to 3.25)8487 (124)3.71 (2.76 to 4.96)
Opium use
 Never users41 558 (164)Reference41 558 (42)Reference41 558 (122)Reference
 Former users838 (19)2.85 (1.73 to 4.7)838 (5)1.95 (0.73 to 5.16)838 (14)3.29 (1.84 to 5.88)
 Current† users7107 (143)3.31 (2.53 to 4.32)7107 (38)2.11 (1.25 to 3.55)7107 (105)3.92 (2.88 to 5.32)
Duration of opium use
 Never users41 558 (164)Reference41 558 (42)Reference41 558 (122)Reference
 Former users868 (20)3.03 (1.86 to 4.95)868 (5)2.01 (0.75 to 5.31)868 (15)3.53 (2.01 to 6.2)
 1st quintile (≤3 years)1671 (17)2.19 (1.32 to 3.64)1671 (3)1.11 (0.34 to 3.66)1671 (14)2.68 (1.53 to 4.71)
 2nd quintile (4–7 years)1486 (16)2.17 (1.28 to 3.66)1486 (2)0.73 (0.17 to 3.08)1486 (14)2.87 (1.63 to 5.06)
 3rd quintile (8–12 years)1433 (25)3.78 (2.43 to 5.89)1433 (5)1.77 (0.67 to 4.66)1433 (20)4.84 (2.94 to 7.94)
 4th quintile (13–20 years)1577 (33)3.61 (2.41 to 5.4)1577 (10)2.58 (1.22 to 5.44)1577 (23)4.04 (2.51 to 6.5)
 5th quintile (>20 years)1452 (56)4.14 (2.89 to 5.94)1452 (18)3.01 (1.55 to 5.81)1452 (38)4.66 (3.04 to 7.15)
  p for trend <0.000 p for trend <0.001 p for trend <0.000
Opium cumulative use
 Never users41 558 (164)Reference41 558 (42)Reference41 558 (122)Reference
 Former users868 (20)2.99 (1.84 to 4.88)868 (5)1.99 (0.75 to 5.27)868 (15)3.47 (1.98 to 6.1)
 1st quintile (≤1148)1524 (18)2.27 (1.38 to 3.73)1524 (2)0.73 (0.17 to 3.09)1524 (16)3 (1.76 to 5.11)
 2nd quintile (1149 to 4383)1524 (22)2.75 (1.74 to 4.36)1524 (5)1.64 (0.63 to 4.28)1524 (17)3.27 (1.94 to 5.51)
 3rd quintile (4384 to 12 054))1524 (25)3.03 (1.95 to 4.71)1524 (6)1.92 (0.78 to 4.68)1524 (19)3.55 (2.15 to 5.88)
 4th quintile (12 055 to 30 681)1570 (38)4.15 (2.82 to 6.08)1570 (9)2.38 (1.09 to 5.18)1570 (29)5.05 (3.26 to 7.83)
 5th quintile (>30 682)1477 (44)3.84 (2.61 to 5.67)1477 (16)2.95 (1.48 to 5.88)1477 (28)4.13 (2.57 to 6.64)
  p for trend <0.000p for trend <0.001p for trend <0.000
Type of opium product
 Never users41 558 (164)Reference41 558 (42)Reference41 558 (122)Reference
 Teriak only7308 (142)3.11 (2.39 to 4.04)7308 (37)2.01 (1.19 to 3.35)7308 (105)3.63 (2.69 to 4.9)
 Shireh only781 (13)2.91 (1.62 to 5.21)781 (2)1.06 (0.25 to 4.53)781 (11)3.99 (2.11 to 7.56)
 Combinations398 (12)4.31 (2.31 to 8.01)398 (4)3.06 (1.02 to 9.18)398 (8)4.88 (2.31 to 10.37)
Route of administration
 Never users41 558 (164)Reference41 558 (42)Reference41 558 (122)Reference
 Smoking5804 (66)2.21 (1.61 to 3.01)5804 (21)1.69 (0.94 to 3.03)5804 (45)2.39 (1.65 to 3.45)
 Ingestion2182 (79)4.57 (3.35 to 6.23)2186 (17)2.29 (1.21 to 4.36)2186 (63)5.79 (4.08 to 8.21)
 Both methods497 (21)5.65 (3.45 to 9.25)497 (5)2.99 (1.11 to 8.06)497 (16)7.17 (4.07 to 12.62)
  • *Adjusted for age, sex, residential place, education, marital status, drinking alcohol and cumulative use of any type of tobacco (pack-years for cigarette and amount×duration of use for hookah and nass).

  • †Excluding 542 who have started opium after their illness.