Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of the cohort participants, opium users and non-users

Never opium user, n (%)Ever opium user, n (%)Never opium user, n (%)Ever opium user, n (%)
All cohort participants41558 (83)8487 (17) 
Age categories (years)Education
 30–39306 (94)19 (6) Illiterate29 490 (84)5628 (16)
 40–4919 462 (85)3331 (15) Up to 8 years8480 (79)2228 (21)
 50–5913 287 (82)2845 (18) High school2601 (82)554 (18)
 60–696336 (79)1641 (21) Higher education987 (93)77 (7)
 70 or more2167 (77)651 (23) 
GenderEthnicity
 Female26 456 (92)2355 (8) Non-Turkmen10 857 (85)1935 (15)
 Male15 102 (71)6132 (29) Turkmen30 701 (82)6552 (18)
Place of residenceMarital status
 Rural32 527 (81)7485 (19) Married36 345 (83)7545 (17)
 Urban9031 (90)1002 (10) Widow/widower, single/divorce5185 (85)940 (15)
Alcohol consumptionCigarette smoking
 Never use40 754 (84)7562 (16) Never smokers36 255 (93)2933 (7)
 Ever use804 (47)925 (54) Ever smokers5303 (49)5554 (51)