Table 1

ARDS survivor characteristics by study*

Baseline variablesICAP (N=99)ALTOS (N=134)
Demographic and clinical characteristics
 Age, years, mean (SD)48.2 (14.0)48.9 (14.6)
 Male, n (%)55 (55.6)68 (50.7)
 BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD)28.3 (6.8)31.0 (7.8)
 Race, n (%)
  White58 (59.2)121 (90.3)
  Black39 (39.8)9 (6.7)
  Other1 (1.0)4 (3.0)
 Primary lung injury, n (%)
  Pneumonia48 (50.0)85 (66.9)
  Sepsis18 (18.8)20 (15.7)
  Aspiration11 (11.5)11 (8.7)
  Trauma5 (5.2)6 (4.7)
  Transfusions5 (5.2)5 (3.9)
  Other9 (9.4)0 (0)
 Charlson Comorbidity Index, mean (SD)2.0 (2.2)1.1 (1.7)
 Functional Comorbidity Index, mean (SD)1.5 (1.4)1.8 (1.3)
 APACHE II score, mean (SD)†23.8 (8.2)25.4 (7.8)
 Ventilation duration, days, mean (SD)12.7 (12.5)11.3 (10.1)
 ICU length of stay, days, mean (SD)17.8 (17.3)15.1 (11.9)
 Hospital length of stay, days, mean (SD)29.4 (22.8)22.2 (16.3)
6-month physical measures‡
 Body structure and function measures
  FEV1, mean % predicted (SD)71.5 (18.9)78.8 (18.6)
  Arm muscle area, mean % (SD)52.3 (12.3)44.7 (18.1)
  MIP, mean % predicted (SD)83.8 (35.2)91.1 (31.0)
  MMT, mean % maximum MRC score (SD)91.1 (8.7)92.5 (7.3)
  Hand grip strength, mean % predicted (SD)77.7 (24.5)78.5 (25.2)
 Activity measures
  6MWT, mean % predicted (SD)58.5 (20.1)67.2 (19.7)
  4 m gait speed, mean (SD) in m/s (ALTOS only)1.0 (0.3)
 Participation measures
  Number of ADL dependencies, mean (SD) (range 0–6, ICAP only)0.2 (0.8)
  Number of IADL dependencies, mean (SD) (range 0–8, ICAP only)1.8 (2.1)
  FPI––total score, mean (SD) (range: 0–2, ALTOS only)2.0 (0.6)
6-month patient-centred outcomes‡
 Alive and living at home, n (%)92 (96.8)125 (94.0)
 SF-36 PCS score, mean (SD)39.7 (11.3)38.5 (11.6)
 EQ-5D utility score, mean (SD)0.8 (0.2)0.7 (0.2)
12-month patient-centred outcomes‡
 Alive to 12 months, n (%)95 (96.0)129 (96.3)
 No hospitalisation, n (%) between 6 and 12 months59 (72.8)98 (78.4)
 Alive and living at home, n (%)88 (93.6)120 (90.2)
 SF-36 PCS score, mean (SD)41.4 (10.5)41.4 (12.8)
 EQ-5D utility score, mean (SD)0.8 (0.2)0.7 (0.2)
  • *Only patients with ARDS who survive to 6-month follow-up are included in this study.

  • †Estimated APACHE II score based on conversion from APACHE III to APACHE II.40

  • ‡Based on non-missing values; Missing values—6-month physical measures (none for any variable in both studies); 6-month outcome (alive at home, N=4, 4% for ICAP, N=1, 0.7% for ALTOS; SF-36 PCS, N=0 for ICAP and ALTOS; EQ-5D, N=0 for ICAP, N=1, 0.7% for ALTOS); 12-month outcomes (alive to 12 months, N=0 for ICAP and ALTOS; no hospitalisation, N=18, 18.2% for ICAP, N=9, 6.7% for ALTOS; alive at home, N=5, 5.0% for ICAP, N=1, 0.7% for ALTOS; SF-36 PCS, N=9, 9.1% for ICAP, N=10, 7.5% for ALTOS; EQ-5D, N=8, 8.1% for ICAP, N=9, 6.7% for ALTOS).

  • ADL, activities of daily living; ALTOS, ARDSNet Long-Term Outcome Study; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; BMI, body mass index; EQ-5D, Euro-QOL; FPI, Functional Performance Inventory; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living; ICAP, Improving Care of Acute Lung Injury Patients; ICU, intensive care unit; MIP, maximal inspiratory pressure; MMT, manual muscle testing; MRC, Medical Research Council; QOL, Quality of Life; 6MWT, 6 min walk test; SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 physical component score.