Table 2

Phenotypes versus clinical characteristics in training cohort

Uninflamed phenotype
N=218
Reactive phenotype
N=236
p Value
Age62 (53.2–72)60 (49–70)0.037
Male137 (62.8)151 (64)0.85
APACHE IV score69 (58–91)93 (74–113)<0.001
APACHE IV acute physiology score57 (45–75)80 (65–105)<0.001
Admission type
 Medical143 (65.6)167 (70.8)0.002
 Elective surgery46 (21.1)21 (8.9)
 Emergency surgery29 (13.3)48 (20.3)
Chronic renal insufficiency17 (7.8)31 (13.1)0.08
Chronic respiratory insufficiency24 (11)8 (3.4)0.002
COPD26 (11.9)18 (7.6)0.16
Diabetes mellitus33 (15.1)33 (14)0.80
Immune deficiency37 (17)49 (20.8)0.34
Current drinking status (alcohol)19 (8.7)29 (12.3)0.23
Systemic corticosteroids (before ICU)32 (14.7)24 (10.2)0.15
Direct hit for ARDS145 (66.5)134 (56.8)0.04
Berlin classification
 Mild85 (39)68 (28.8)0.07
 Moderate103 (47.2)128 (54.2)
 Severe30 (13.8)40 (16.9)
Maximal inspiratory pressure20 (16–26)26 (21–33)<0.001
PaO2/FiO2177.8 (136–256)178 (133–223)0.18
PEEP8 (5–11)10 (8–14)<0.001
Tidal volume/kg predicted bodyweight7.1 (6.3–8.1)7.1 (6.2–8.3)0.92
APPS5 (4–6)5 (5–7)0.008
SOFA: circulation3 (1–4)4 (3–4)<0.001
SOFA: CNS0 (0–1)0 (0–1)0.97
SOFA: coagulation0 (0–1)1 (0–2)<0.001
SOFA: liver0 (0–0)0 (0–1)<0.001
SOFA: renal0 (0–1)1 (0–3)<0.001
SOFA: respiratory3 (3–4)3 (3–4)0.05
SOFA: total score7 (5–9)10 (8–12)<0.001
Days on mechanical ventilation6 (3–10)7 (4–14.5)0.004
ICU length of stay7 (4–12)10 (5–19)0.006
Days free of MV at day 2821 (11–25)9 (0–21)<0.001
ICU mortality34 (15.6)86 (36.4)<0.001
30 day mortality47 (21.6)89 (37.7)<0.001
  • Data are presented as the median with IQR for continuous variables and as number with percentage for categorical variables. The p value is calculated by the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and by Fisher's exact for categorical variables. Definitions for the variables are given in the definition table at the end of the paper.

  • APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; APPS, Age, PaO2/FiO2 and Plateau pressure Score; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CNS, central nervous system; ICU, intensive care unit; MV, mechanical ventilation; PEEP, positive end expiratory pressure; SOFA, sepsis-related organ failure assessment.