Table 3

Bivariable associations of 6-month physical measures with 12-month patient-centred outcomes

6-month physical measuresAlive between 6 and 12 months†No hospitalisation between 6 and 12 months‡Alive at home at 12 months§SF-36 PCS 12 monthsEQ-5D utility 12 months
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)Pearson r (95% CI)Pearson r (95% CI)
Body structure and function measures
 FEV1, each 10% predicted
  Combined sample1.11 (0.79 to 1.55)1.08 (0.92 to 1.28)1.00 (0.78 to 1.28)0.18 (0.05 to 0.31)**0.02 (−0.11 to 0.15)
  ICAP1.78 (1.05 to 3.04)*0.84 (0.63 to 1.12)1.72 (1.10 to 2.71)*0.12 (−0.09 to 0.32)−0.09 (−0.29 to 0.12)
  ALTOS0.68 (0.39 to 1.20)1.27 (1.01 to 1.59)*0.75 (0.53 to 1.06)0.22 (0.04 to 0.38)*0.11 (−0.07 to 0.28)
 Arm muscle area, each 10%
  Combined sample1.04 (0.70 to 1.54)0.93 (0.76 to 1.14)1.12 (0.86 to 1.45)0.08 (−0.05 to 0.22)0.09 (−0.05 to 0.22)
  ICAP0.64 (0.25 to 1.60)0.87 (0.59 to 1.30)0.53 (0.24 to 1.20)0.24 (0.03 to 0.42)*0.17 (−0.04 to 0.36)
  ALTOS1.20 (0.79 to 1.82)0.98 (0.77 to 1.24)1.22 (0.93 to 1.60)0.03 (−0.15 to 0.20)0.03 (−0.15 to 0.20)
 MIP, each 10% predicted
  Combined sample1.21 (0.96 to 1.51)1.04 (0.94 to 1.14)1.09 (0.94 to 1.26)0.15 (0.02 to 0.28)*0.03 (−0.10 to 0.17)
  ICAP1.31 (0.89 to 1.93)1.03 (0.90 to 1.18)1.12 (0.86 to 1.45)0.01 (−0.19 to 0.22)−0.18 (−0.37 to 0.03)
  ALTOS1.15 (0.85 to 1.54)1.04 (0.90 to 1.19)1.09 (0.91 to 1.32)0.25 (0.07 to 0.41)**0.20 (0.02 to 0.36)*
 MMT, each 10% of maximum MRC score
  Combined sample0.97 (0.41 to 2.28)1.21 (0.81 to 1.82)1.44 (0.86 to 2.43)0.32 (0.19 to 0.43)**0.23 (0.10 to 0.36)**
  ICAP1.33 (0.48 to 3.70)1.04 (0.57 to 1.90)1.23 (0.51 to 2.95)0.34 (0.14 to 0.51)**0.03 (−0.18 to 0.23)
  ALTOS0.59 (0.13 to 2.67)1.39 (0.80 to 2.40)1.69 (0.85 to 3.36)0.31 (0.14 to 0.46)**0.41 (0.25 to 0.54)**
 Grip strength, each 10% predicted
  Combined sample0.90 (0.70 to 1.16)1.08 (0.95 to 1.24)0.98 (0.82 to 1.19)0.08 (−0.05 to 0.21)0.05 (−0.09 to 0.18)
  ICAP0.97 (0.65 to 1.44)1.17 (0.94 to 1.46)0.97 (0.69 to 1.35)0.08 (−0.13 to 0.28)−0.10 (−0.30 to 0.11)
  ALTOS0.86 (0.62 to 1.19)1.03 (0.87 to 1.22)0.99 (0.79 to 1.24)0.09 (−0.09 to 0.26)0.13 (−0.05 to 0.30)
Activity measures
 6MWT, each 10% predicted
  Combined sample1.16 (0.84 to 1.59)1.27 (1.08 to 1.50)**1.13 (0.90 to 1.41)0.42 (0.30 to 0.53)**0.23 (0.10 to 0.35)**
  ICAP1.21 (0.76 to 1.91)1.20 (0.94 to 1.54)1.14 (0.77 to 1.67)0.43 (0.24 to 0.58)**0.22 (0.02 to 0.41)*
  ALTOS1.12 (0.71 to 1.75)1.32 (1.05 to 1.67)*1.17 (0.88 to 1.56)0.44 (0.28 to 0.57)**0.28 (0.11 to 0.44)**
 4 m gait speed, each 0.11 m/s¶ (ALTOS only)0.91 (0.71 to 1.17)1.29 (1.06 to 1.58)*1.01 (0.82 to 1.24)0.42 (0.27 to 0.56)**0.34 (0.17 to 0.48)**
Participation measures
  Number of ADL dependencies (ICAP only)0.67 (0.35 to 1.29)0.90 (0.52 to 1.53)0.76 (0.39 to 1.45)0.01 (−0.19 to 0.22)0.00 (−0.21 to 0.20)
  Number of IADL dependencies (ICAP only)0.55 (0.34 to 0.91)*1.13 (0.87 to 1.47)0.69 (0.49 to 0.98)*−0.38 (−0.54 to −0.18)**−0.29 (−0.47 to −0.09)**
  FPI––total, per 0.20 unit†† (ALTOS only)0.96 (0.71 to 1.30)1.14 (0.99 to 1.32)1.16 (0.96 to 1.39)0.50 (0.36 to 0.62)**0.42 (0.26 to 0.55)**
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • †Alive between 6 and 12 months (yes=1, no=0; combined––1, n=224, 96%; 0, n=9, 4%; ICAP––1, n=95, 96%; 0, n=4, 4%; ALTOS––1, n=129, 96%; 0, n=5, 4%).

  • ‡No hospitalisation between 6 and 12 months (yes=1, no=0; combined––1, n=157, 76%; 0, n=49, 24%; ICAP––1, n=59, 73%; 0, n=22, 27%; ALTOS––1, n=98, 78%; 0, n=27, 22%).

  • §Alive at home outcome for 12 months (yes=1, no=0; combined––1, n=208, 92%, 0, n=19, 8%; ICAP––1, n=88, 94%, 0, n=6, 6%; ALTOS––1, n=120, 90%; 0, n=13, 10%).

  • ¶0.11 m/s is an estimated MCID for the 4 m gait speed test based on prior study among patients with COPD.31

  • ††0.20 is an estimated MCID for the FPI.

  • ADL, activities of daily living; ALTOS, ARDSNet Long-Term Outcome Study; EQ-5D, Euro-QOL; FPI, Functional Performance Inventory; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living; ICAP, Improving Care of Acute Lung Injury Patients; MCID, minimal clinically important difference; MIP, maximal inspiratory pressure; MMT, manual muscle testing; MRC, Medical Research Council; QOL, Quality of Life; 6MWT, 6 min walk test; SF-36 PCS, Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 physical component score.