Chronic renal insufficiencyChronically increased plasma creatinine before ICU admission or renal replacement therapy.
Chronic respiratory insufficiencyMarked limitations in physical activity due to chronic respiratory disease or home oxygen support.
ClusterA naturally occurring subgroup of a population.
COPDHistory of COPD in medical records or anamnestic.
Current drinking status (alcohol)Anamnestic daily alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence.
Diabetes mellitusHistory of diabetes mellitus in medical records or anamnestic.
Direct hit for ARDSPulmonary causative factor for ARDS. Pneumonia, aspiration, smoke inhalation or near drowning.
EndotypeA subset of patients defined by a distinct functional or pathobiological mechanism. Endotypes often confer both a differential risk of disease-related outcome and a differential response to a therapy. Thus, such a markers may enable both predictive and prognostic enrichment.40
Immune deficiencyInherited or acquired immune deficiency (eg, HIV) or the usage of immunosuppressive medication (eg, chemotherapy).
Observed phenotypeThe phenotype (see definition) that is observed in all collected data through cluster analysis.
Personalised medicineThe tailoring of medical treatment to the individual unique characteristics of each patient.20
PhenotypeA clinical entity defined by observable characteristics that are produced by interactions of the genotype and the environment. The term is often used to describe subsets based on clinical or biochemical variables, natural history, manifestations of disease and/or response to treatment without any implication about mechanism.40
Prognostic enrichmentIdentifying and focusing on high-risk patients.
Predictive enrichmentIdentifying and focusing on patients who are more likely to respond to the therapy being studied.
Predicted phenotypeThe phenotype (see definition) that is predicted by a subset of the markers that was used for phenotype discovery.
Stratified medicineThe tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient. It does not literally mean the creation of drugs or medical devices that are unique to a patient, but rather the ability to classify individuals into stratified subpopulations that differ in their susceptibility to (or severity of) a particular disease or their response to a specific treatment. Preventive or therapeutic interventions can then be concentrated on those who will benefit, sparing expense and side effects for those who will not.20
Systemic corticosteroids (before ICU)Administration of systemic corticosteroids before admission to the ICU.