Table 1

Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, socio-environmental determinants and physical activity in 410 COPD patients

All patients
Sex: male, n (%)349 (85)
Age (years), mean (SD)69 (8.5)
Education: primary or less, n (%)286 (70)
Married or living with partner, n (%)311 (76)
Low socio-economic status (SES): IV–V, n (%)113 (27)
Working status: active, n (%)39 (9)
Smoking status: current, n (%)98 (24)
Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), mean (SD)28.4 (4.9)
Dyspnoea (mMRC grade, 0–4), mean (SD)1.2 (0.9)
Post-bronchodilator FEV1 (% predicted), mean (SD)56.3 (17.3)
Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, mean (SD)55 (12)
6MWD (m), mean (SD)486 (95)
Health-related quality of life (CAT score, 0–40), mean (SD)12 (7)
Anxiety (HAD-A score, 0–21), mean (SD)5.2 (4)
Depression (HAD-D score, 0–21), mean (SD)3.5 (3.3)
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)114 (28)
Coronary heart disease, n (%)37 (9)
Hypertension, n (%)203 (51)
Musculoskeletal disease, n (%)155 (39)
Dog ownership, n (%)75 (18)
Dog walking, n (%)49 (12)
Having grandchildren, n (%)302 (73)
Grandparenting, n (%)154 (38)
Neighbourhood deprivation (UVI score, 0 (low)–1 (high)), mean (SD)0.64 (0.17)
Residential surrounding greenness (NDVI, 0 (low)–1 (high)), mean (SD)0.19 (0.05)
Residential proximity to green or blue spaces, n (%)217 (53)
Minimal distance to green or blue spaces (m), mean (SD)297 (177)
Steps (number/day), mean (SD)7480 (4070)
Walking time (min/day), mean (SD)86 (42)
Time in any physical activity (min/day), mean (SD)169 (71)
Time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (min/day), mean (SD)105 (49)
VMU/min, mean (SD)464 (304)
  • *Some variables had missing values: 10 in diabetes, coronary heart disease, musculoskeletal diseases and hypertension, 3 in grandparenting, and 3 in neighbourhood deprivation, residential surrounding greenness, residential proximity to green or blue spaces because the patient's address could not be geocoded.

  • 6MWD, 6-min walking distance; CAT, COPD Assessment Test; HAD, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council scale; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; UVI, Urban Vulnerability Index; VMU, vector magnitude units.