Table 2

Crude and adjusted HRs for the association between the use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia

Exposure to ADTEventsPerson- yearsIncidence rate* (95% CI)Crude HRAdjusted HR (95% CI)†
Non-use14738 5353.8 (3.2–4.5)1.001.00 (reference)
Current use36430 05212.1 (10.9–13.4)3.321.81 (1.47–2.23)
Past use11017 7136.2 (5.1–7.5)1.441.23 (0.95–1.60)
Duration of current use, months
 <66365069.7 (7.4–12.4)2.621.73 (1.23–2.42)
 6–124550768.9 (6.5–11.9)2.851.76 (1.19–2.60)
 13–1841361011.4 (8.2–15.4)4.292.45 (1.64–3.67)
 19–2430285910.5 (7.1–15.0)2.931.62 (1.02–2.56)
 ≥2518512 00115.4 (13.3–17.8)3.691.79 (1.39–2.30)
ADT type
 GnRH agonist alone24821 42611.6 (10.2–13.1)3.251.73 (1.39–2.16)
 Oral antiandrogens alone43387411.1 (8.0–15.0)2.931.64 (1.16–2.32)
 GnRH agonists and oral antiandrogens51357514.3 (10.6–18.8)3.662.18 (1.56–3.03)
 Oestrogens alone513038.5 (12.5–89.8)8.834.50 (1.82–11.17)
 Bilateral orchiectomy alone640514.8 (5.4–32.2)3.732.32 (1.02–5.30)
 Other combinations1164317.1 (8.5–30.6)4.082.47 (1.33–4.61)
  • *Per 1000 person-years.

  • †Adjusted for age, year of prostate cancer diagnosis, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol-related disorders, seasonality, prostate-specific antigen, previous cancer, COPD, asthma, bronchitis and bronchiectasis, use of immunosuppressive agents, inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled and oral corticosteroids, oral antibiotics, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines.

  • GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone.