Table 4

Outcome variables for intervention group and control group: mean (SD) change and mean difference (95% CI) from visit 1 (baseline) (visit 2 minus visit 1)

Outcome measureIntervention
(n=26)
Mean (SD) change
Control
(n=29)
Mean (SD) change
Difference mean change scores
(95% CI)
p Value
SF-36*
 Physical functioning6.8 (10.9)3.9 (8.2)3.0 (−2.2 to 8.2)0.26
 Role physical12.0 (9.8)5.4 (11.8)6.6 (0.73 to 12.5)0.03
 Bodily pain5.2 (9.1)1.3 (8.5)3.9 (−0.87 to 8.7)0.11
N=25
 General health0.43 (10.2)−1.2 (7.8)1.7 (−3.3 to 6.6)0.50
 Vitality4.6 (10.1)2.3 (10.8)2.3 (−3.4 to 8.0)0.42
 Social functioning10.7 (13.1)4.2 (12.3)6.6 (−0.3 to 13.5)0.06
N=25
 Role emotional8.2 (14.5)2.5 (16.4)5.7 (−2.8 to 14.2)0.18
 Mental health2.8 (12.5)0.16 (11.7)2.6 (−3.9 to 9.1)0.43
N=25
Physical component summary7.0 (7.8)3.2 (6.7)3.8 (−0.2 to 7.8)0.06
N=25
Mental component summary5.8 (13.6)1.1 (13.1)4.6 (−2.7 to 11.9)0.21
N=22N=28
Rivermead mobility index*1.3 (2.1)1.1 (1.8)0.13 (−0.98 to 1.2)0.82
N=20N=25
Incremental shuttle walk test*135.5 (119.8)52.4 (126.7)83.1 (8.3 to 157.9)0.03
Functional limitations profile†N=22N=28
 Physical dimension−10.0 (9.7)−5.3 (7.5)−4.7 (−9.5 to 0.2)0.06
 Psychosocial dimension−7.4 (12.3)−2.4 (9.2)−5.0 (−11.1 to 1.1)0.11
 Overall score−7.8 (7.4)−3.0 (6.3)−4.8 (−8.7 to −0.9)0.02
EuroQol-5D-5LN=22N=28
 Visual analogue scale*7.4 (20.4)6.4 (17.9)0.97 (−9.9 to 11.9)0.86
 Index†0.02 (0.20)0.02 (0.17)0.00 (−0.1 to 0.1)0.998
Hand-held dynamometry*N=22N=26
 Dominant hand6.1 (28.1)12.5 (22.8)−6.4 (−21.2 to 8.4)0.39
 Non-dominant hand9.1 (28.2)14.0 (28.7)−4.9 (−21.5 to 11.7)0.56
Nine hole peg test*N=22N=26
 Dominant hand9.4 (15.3)5.3 (10.7)4.1 (−3.4 to 11.7)0.28
N=21N=27
 Non-dominant hand8.9 (13.7)5.3 (16.1)3.6 (−5.2 to 12.4)0.41
Hospital anxiety and depression scale†N=22N=280.43
 Anxiety−0.59 (3.6)0.18 (3.3)−0.77 (−2.7 to 1.2)0.15
 Depression−1.2 (4.4)0.36 (3.1)−1.6 (−3.7 to 0.6)
N=22N=27
Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale†−0.14 (0.94)0.00 (1.00)−0.14 (−0.7 to 0.4)0.63
N=22N=28
Chronic disease self-efficacy scale*1.6 (3.0)−0.57 (2.1)2.2 (0.8 to 3.7)0.01
N=22N=28
Readiness to exercise*1.1 (0.97)−0.21 (0.96)1.3 (0.8 to 1.9)<0.001
  • *A positive change score represents improvement.

  • †A negative change score represents improvement.