Table 1

Characteristics of patients with pulmonary TB, according to diabetes control status

 Non-DMControlled-DMUncontrolled-DM
N=504N=49N=108p Value
Age, years median (IQR)41.0 (29.4–56.8)62.1 (50.3–70.0)*56.1 (49.1–65.7)*<0.001
Sex, male324/504 (64.3)37/49 (75.5)92/108 (85.2)*<0.001
BMI, mean±SD (kg/m2)20.6±3.221.8±3.9*20.9±3.00.034
Any smoking history198/503 (39.4)28/48 (58.3)*73/108 (67.6)*<0.001
TB history96/504 (19.0)12/49 (24.5)26/108 (24.1)0.373
Symptom
 Cough332/504 (65.9)31/49 (63.3)87/108 (80.6)*0.009
 Sputum264/504 (52.4)27/49 (55.1)71/106 (67.0)*0.023
 Haemoptysis57/503 (11.3)6/49 (12.2)13/107 (12.1)0.959
 Weight loss141/504 (28.0)21/49 (42.9)46/108 (42.6)*0.002
 Fever129/503 (25.6)13/49 (26.5)37/107 (34.6)0.168
 Night sweating50/504 (9.9)5/49 (10.2)19/107 (17.8)0.064
 Symptom score (≥4)75/504 (14.9)9/49 (18.4)26/107 (24.3)0.056
Microbiologic findings
 Smear positivity213/504 (42.3)22/49 (44.9)80/108 (74.1)*†<0.001
 Drug resistant (any drug)59/399 (14.8)10/43 (23.3)19/93 (20.4)0.190
 INH resistant48/401 (12.0)6/43 (14.0)15/94 (16.0)0.567
 MDR18/401 (4.35)4/43 (9.3)6/94 (6.4)0.342
Chest radiograph
 Cavity181/504 (35.9)22/49 (44.9)70/108 (64.8)*<0.001
 Consolidation277/504 (55.0)32/49 (65.3)79/108 (73.1)*0.001
 Multi-lobe involvement‡132/504 (26.2)20/49 (40.8)49/108 (45.4)*<0.001
Underlying disease
 Heart disease37/497 (7.4)16/49 (32.7)*26/107 (24.3)*<0.001
 Cancer15/503 (3.0)1/49 (2.0)4/108 (3.7)0.846
 ESRD2/501 (0.4)1/49 (2.0)2/108 (1.9)0.162
  • Data are presented as the number (%) of subjects, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *p<0.05 compared with non-DM, †p<0.05 compared with controlled-DM.

  • ‡Multi-lobe involvement indicates lung involvement of more than three lobes.

  • BMI, body mass index; DM, diabetes mellitus; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; INH, isoniazid; MDR, multidrug resistant.