TableĀ 1

PSALTI components

PSALTI componentTechnique
EducationEducate patients on the cough reflex, chronic cough and cough reflex hypersensitivity.
Explain the negative effects of repeated coughing.
Educate patients on voluntary control of cough.
Laryngeal hygiene and hydrationIncrease frequency and volume of water and non-caffeinated drinks.
Reduce caffeine and alcohol intake.
Promote nasal breathing.
Cough controlTeach patients to identify their cough triggers.
Teach patients to use cough suppression or distraction techniques at the first sign or sensation of the need or urge to cough. These cough-suppression/distraction techniques include: forced swallowing, sipping water and sucking sweets.
Teach patients breathing exercises: breathing pattern re-education promoting relaxed abdominal breathing pattern technique; pursed lip breathing to use to control cough.
Psychoeducational counsellingMotivate patients, reiterate the techniques and the aims of therapy.
Behaviour modification: to try to reduce over-awareness of the need to cough.
Stress and anxiety management
  • Modified from Chamberlain et al.18

  • PSALTI, physiotherapy, and speech and language therapy intervention.