Table 1

Screens risk profile and results of LDCT in pilot UKLS and ITALUNG RCT

Pilot UKLSITALUNG
Age (years) of selected subjects50–7555–69
Eligibility criteria5-year lung cancer risk of ≥5%, based on the Liverpool Lung Project v2 risk prediction modelSmokers or former smokers of ≥20 pack/years
Sample size
 Control arm20271593
 Screened arm20281613
Screeens' characteristics
Mean age at randomisation (years SD)67 (4.1)61 (4.2)
Gender (male/female ratio)1529/499 (3.06)1035/578 (1.79)
Current smokers777 (38.3%)1060 (65.7%)
Ex-smokers1249 (61.6%)553 (34.3%)
Never smokers2 (0.1%)0
Smoking duration
10–19 years*117 (5.8%)1 (0.06%)
20+ years*1895 (93.4%)1612 (99.94%)
Unknown*14 (0.7%)0
% Asbestos exposed763 (36%)93 (6.6%)†
% With history of respiratory disease‡1056 (52.1%)494 (35.1%)†
% With history of blood cancer§26 (1.28%)Not eligible
% With history of solid tumour¶378 (18.6%)Not eligible
% With family history of lung cancer498 (24.6%)237 (16.8%)†
% With family history of other cancer (not lung)**1026 (50.6%)640 (45.5%)†
Baseline LDCT completed1994 (98.3%)1406 (87.2%)
LDCT detected primary lung cancers42/1994 (2.1%)25/1406 (1.7%)††
At baseline scan34/1994 (1.7%)21/1406 (1.4%)
Adenocarcinoma25/42 (59.5%)13/25 (52.0%)
Stage I lung cancer28/42 (66.7%)14/25 (56.0%)
Stage I or II lung cancer36/42 (85.7%)17/25 (68.0%)
Surgical resection35/42 (83.3%)17/25 (68.0%)
Subjects undergoing 12-month scan LDCT1015/1994 (50.9%)‡‡1356 (96.4%)
Overall category 3 and 4 nodules§§536/1994 (26.8%)426/1406 (30.2%)
Of these, subjects found to have lung cancer42/536 (7.8%)25/426 (5.8%)
Surgical resection for benign disease4/39 (10.3%)1/21 (4.7%)¶¶
  • *All smoking (cigarettes, cigars, pipes) duration figures refer to current and ex-smokers combined.

  • †Information available in 1406 subjects undergoing baseline LDCT.

  • ‡Asthma, bronchitis, TB, pneumonia, COPD or emphysema.

  • §Leukaemia or lymphoma, including Hodgkin's.

  • ¶Cancers of brain, head and neck, oesophagus, breast, colon or ‘other’.

  • ††Data of ITALUNG refer to baseline and first annual repeat LDCT screening rounds.

  • ‡‡Due to evidence at baseline of nodules >3 mm diameter.

  • **Cancers of brain, head and neck, oesophagus, breast, colon or ‘other’.

  • §§Category 3 nodules correspond to: solid nodules with 5–9.9 mm diameter; part-solid nodules with non-solid component >5 mm diameter and solid component of 3–9.9 mm diameter; non-solid nodules ≥5 mm diameter.

  • Category 4 nodules correspond to: solid nodules ≥10 mm diameter; part-solid nodules with solid component ≥10 mm diameter.

  • ¶¶One case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia reclassified as adenocarcinoma in 2015.