Table 4

Adjusted* HRs (95% CI) for all-cause and lung cancer mortality associated with 1 SD increase in air pollutant exposure,† stratified by stage at diagnosis

Air pollutantStage at diagnosisSample sizeAll-cause mortalityLung cancer mortality
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
NO2Localised only52 2231.30 (1.28 to 1.32)1.31 (1.29 to 1.33)
Regional63 7771.18 (1.17 to 1.20)1.18 (1.16 to 1.19)
Distant site(s)162 8161.07 (1.07 to 1.08)‡1.07 (1.06 to 1.08)
Overall§305 7211.13 (1.12 to 1.13)‡1.12 (1.11 to 1.12)‡
O3Localised only55 8231.04 (1.02 to 1.05)1.05 (1.04 to 1.07)
Regional68 5041.03 (1.02 to 1.04)1.03 (1.02 to 1.05)
Distant site(s)174 0221.01 (1.01 to 1.02)‡1.02 (1.01 to 1.02)‡
Overall§327 5131.02 (1.02 to 1.03)‡1.03 (1.02 to 1.03)‡
PM10Localised only54 6711.26 (1.25 to 1.28)1.27 (1.25 to 1.29)
Regional67 1081.16 (1.15 to 1.17)1.15 (1.14 to 1.17)
Distant site(s)170 4151.07 (1.06 to 1.07)‡1.07 (1.06 to 1.07)‡
Overall§320 9401.11 (1.11 to 1.12)‡1.11 (1.10 to 1.11)‡
PM2.5Localised only28 2121.38 (1.35 to 1.41)1.39 (1.36 to 1.43)
Regional34 2231.26 (1.24 to 1.28)1.24 (1.22 to 1.27)
Distant site(s)90 2431.10 (1.09 to 1.11)‡1.10 (1.09 to 1.11)
Overall§160 7071.16 (1.16 to 1.17)‡1.15 (1.14 to 1.16)‡
  • *Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education index, socioeconomic status, rural–urban commuting area, distance to primary interstate highway, distance to primary US and state highways, histology at diagnosis, month of diagnosis, year of diagnosis and initial treatment.

  • †SD values: 10.2 ppb for NO2, 11.9 ppb for O3, 12.1 μg/m3 for PM10 and 5.3 μg/m3 for PM2.5.

  • ‡Estimate and CI bounds appear identical due to rounding.

  • §Overall analyses do not stratify by stage, but adjust for stage and include patients with unknown stage.

  • ¶PM2.5 results are only for the subset of patients whose cancer was diagnosed in 1998 or later.

  • PM2.5, particulate matter with diameter <2.5 μm; PM10, particulate matter with diameter <10 μm.