Table 5

Risk of recurrence according to patient factors and intervention*

Recurrence % (no.)HR95% CIp Value
Sex
Female (reference group)0.6 (2/329)1.00
 Male2.3 (24/1051)2.910.67 to 12.650.15
Current smoking status
Non-smoker (reference)0.2 (2/805)1.00
 Smoker4.2 (24/575)15.183.55 to 64.75<0.001
Bulla intervention
Poudrage only (reference)0.3 (1/307)1.00
 Bulla resection (standard stapler)1.7 (6/344)4.140.47 to 36.110.20
 Bulla sutured (no knife stapler)3.8 (10/260)9.381.16 to 76.040.036
 Bulla ligation15.0 (3/20)26.682.75 to 258.570.005
 Electrocoagulation3.9 (2/51)9.510.86 to 105.530.067
 Lobectomy0.0 (0/3)n/a†n/a
 No Bullae1.0 (4/395)5.510.02 to 1415.940.55
Vanderschueren's stage
 13.4 (1/29)9.170.81 to 103.730.073
2 (reference)0.8 (3/372)1.00
 31.8 (14/785)2.110.01 to 392.160.78
 44.1 (8/194)3.470.02 to 678.700.64
Side
Right (reference)1.7 (14/826)1.00
 Left2.2 (12/554)1.470.68 to 3.210.33
  • Bold text indicates variables used as a reference group for risk of recurrence. *HRs were estimated using a multivariable Cox regression model.

  • †The HR for lobectomy could not be estimated due to the small sample size.