Table 1

The baseline characteristics of 8098 active TB cases and 809 800 controls

Case group
N=8098
Control group
N=809 800
p Value
Demographics
 Male; n (%)5573 (68.8)557 300 (68.8)1.000
 Age, years; mean±SD60.3±19.360.2±19.20.741
Site; n (%)<0.0001
 Area: urban region3529 (43.6)375 847 (46.4) 
 Area: metro area2047 (25.3)204 415 (25.2)
 Area: suburban area1621 (20.0)155 078 (19.2)
 Area: countryside area901 (11.1)67 010 (8.3)
Insurance premiums; n (%) <0.0001
 Dependent712 (8.8)75 058 (9.3) 
 $1–$19 9992918 (36.0)239 135 (29.5)
 $20 000–$39 9993400 (42.0)329 046 (40.6)
 ≥$40 0001068 (13.2)159 110 (19.6)
Conditions included in the Charlson index; n (%)
 Peripheral vascular disease496 (6.1)44 277 (5.5)0.040
 Congestive heart failure957 (11.8)68 749 (8.5)<0.0001
 Myocardial infarction/acute coronary syndromes245 (3.0)18 847 (2.3)<0.0001
 Cerebrovascular disease1582 (19.5)128 220 (15.8)<0.0001
 Dementia441 (5.5)27 636 (3.4)<0.0001
 Chronic pulmonary disease3601 (44.5)254 492 (31.4)<0.0001
 Rheumatologic disease262 (3.2)19 101 (2.3)<0.0001
 Peptic ulcer disease2977 (36.8)246 737 (30.4)<0.0001
 Mild liver disease2358 (29.1)190 530 (23.5)<0.0001
 Diabetes without chronic complications1868 (23.1)136 206 (16.8)<0.0001
 Diabetes with chronic complications707 (8.7)42 452 (5.2)<0.0001
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia386 (4.8)27 248 (3.4)<0.0001
 Renal disease834 (10.3)53 708 (6.6)<0.0001
 Any malignancy, including leukaemia and lymphoma878 (10.8)59 997 (7.4)<0.0001
 Moderate or severe liver disease90 (1.1)3554 (0.4)<0.0001
 Metastatic solid tumour121 (1.5)6392 (0.8)<0.0001
 AIDS/HIV17 (0.2)397 (0.04)<0.0001
Additional comorbidities; n (%)
 Alcohol/drug use399 (4.9)16 622 (2.1)<0.0001
 Psychiatric disorder2299 (28.4)201 356 (24.9)<0.0001
 Neurologic disorder592 (7.3)36 877 (4.6)<0.0001
 Obesity26 (0.3)5276 (0.7)<0.0001
 Cancers except metastatic solid tumours2205 (27.2)189 124 (23.4)<0.0001
 COPD2780 (34.3)182 130 (22.5)<0.0001
 Silicosis15 (0.2)860 (0.1)0.010
 Gastrointestinal or oesophageal haemorrhage653 (8.1)37 338 (4.6)<0.0001
Risk factors; n (%)
 Solid organ transplantation, such as kidney or heart7 (0.09)134 (0.01)<0.0001
 Malnutrition98 (1.2)3062 (0.4)<0.0001
 Post-gastric surgery5 (0.06)130 (0.01)<0.0001
OPD and hospitalisation (within 1 year before the index date); median and inter-quartile range
 The number of OPD visits20 (8–37)15 (5–29)<0.0001
 The number of emergency department visits0 (0–0)0 (0–0)<0.0001
 The number of hospitalisations0 (0–0)0 (0–0)<0.0001
Medication use; n (%)
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs3076 (37.9)247 727 (30.6)<0.0001
 Aspirin1271 (15.7)112 824 (13.9)<0.0001
 Systemic immunosuppressive agents and biologics49 (0.6)1413 (0.2)<0.0001
 Systemic corticosteroids1520 (18.8)92 717 (11.4)<0.0001
 Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs162 (2.0)7475 (0.9)<0.0001
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor858 (10.6)77 402 (9.6)0.020
 β blockers926 (11.4)93 141 (11.5)0.440
 Angiotensin II antagonists608 (7.5)62 186 (7.7)0.249
 Nitrates486 (6.0)41 115 (5.1)<0.0001
 Proton-pump inhibitors399 (4.9)25 526 (3.2)<0.0001
 Calcium channel blocker1678 (20.7)163 917 (20.2)0.285
 Acetaminophen3361 (41.5)263 214 (32.5)<0.0001
  • OPD, outpatient department.