Table 5

Adjusted associations between influenza vaccination status and outcomes before and after influenza season

PeriodAge groupDiabetesILIPI hospitalisationsALL hospitalisations
IRR*CIp ValueIRRCIp ValueIRRCIp Value
PREWorking ageDM0.95(0.92 to 0.98)0.0000.99(0.76 to 1.28)0.9390.78(0.73 to 0.83)0.000
ElderlyDM0.76(0.73 to 0.79)0.0000.58(0.47 to 0.72)0.0000.70(0.67 to 0.74)0.000
No DM0.71(0.69 to 0.74)0.0000.61(0.49 to 0.77)0.0000.65(0.62 to 0.68)0.000
POSTWorking ageDM1.06(1.03 to 1.09)0.0000.76(0.55 to 1.04)0.0850.69(0.65 to 0.74)0.000
ElderlyDM0.89(0.85 to 0.93)0.0000.39(0.31 to 0.50)0.0000.62(0.59 to 0.65)0.000
No DM0.93(0.89 to 0.97)0.0000.48(0.36 to 0.62)0.0000.60(0.57 to 0.64)0.000
  • *IRR, incidence rate ratio (vaccinated vs not vaccinated), adjusted for sex, age (20-year age bands), income (upper vs lower), pneumococcal vaccination receipt, number of medical visits in the previous year, number of minor ADGs in the previous 2 years, number of major ADGs in the previous 2 years, month and year. p=0.000 refers to p<0.001.

  • ALL, All-cause hospitalisations; DM, Diabetes mellitus; ILI, Influenza-like illness; PI, Pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations; POST, Post-season period from the end of influenza season until June 30 each year; PRE, Pre-season period from October to the beginning of influenza season.