Table 2

Association between exposure to smoking in movies and adolescent smoking

Risk variables*Using modified Beach as measure of exposure to film smoking
Model 1: comparison of Beach versus modified Beach exposuresModel 2: movie smoking exposure and media parentingModel 3: movie smoking exposure, media parenting and family characteristicsModel 4: movie smoking exposure, media parenting, family characteristics, and individual characteristicsModel 5: movie smoking exposure, media parenting, family characteristics, individual characteristics and friend environment
Exposure to film smoking
 Beach method (does not consider times seen)2.08(1.34 to 3.21)
 Modified Beach method (considers times seen)2.59(1.73 to 3.87)2.53(1.66 to 3.86)2.39(1.55 to 3.70)3.10(1.95 to 4.91)2.08(1.22 to 3.55)
Media use/access
Rules about media
Television/film rules
 TV/films parenting scale0.30(0.23 to 0.39)0.29(0.22 to 0.39)0.31(0.23 to 0.42)0.37(0.27 to 0.52)
 Internet usage supervised?
  Yes0.94(0.65 to 1.36)0.89(0.61 to 1.30)0.86(0.58 to 1.29)0.99(0.62 to 1.57)
 Film viewing pattern
  Views films with parents0.52(0.35 to 0.78)0.55(0.36 to 0.84)0.53(0.34 to 0.82)0.66(0.40 to 1.11)
Family Background
 Housing tenure
  Owner-occupied1.37(1.02 to 1.84)1.10(0.80 to 1.51)0.94(0.65 to 1.36)
  All other types of accommodation1.11(0.66 to 1.87)1.19(0.69 to 2.07)1.21(0.64 to 2.28)
 Parental education
  Either/only parent remained at school beyond age 161.23(0.94 to 1.60)1.03(0.77 to 1.37)0.84(0.60 to 1.16)
  Both/only parent(s) left school at 16 years of age0.84(0.59 to 1.18)0.63(0.43 to 0.93)0.53(0.34 to 0.83)
 Family connectedness0.62(0.35 to 1.08)0.53(0.29 to 0.96)0.48(0.25 to 0.95)
 Parental monitoring0.46(0.29 to 0.72)0.52(0.33 to 0.84)0.79(0.46 to 1.36)
Individual characteristics
  Female2.48(1.92 to 3.21)2.26(1.68 to 3.02)
 Number of national school examinations being sat
  6 or less1.11(0.84 to 1.47)0.70(0.50 to 0.98)
  Did not answer1.77(1.03 to 3.02)1.16(0.61 to 2.17)
 School leaving plans
  Plans to remain in school beyond statutory leaving ageRef
  Plans to leave school as soon as legally entitled to3.06(2.15 to 4.36)2.38(1.56 to 3.62)
  Don't know1.26(0.86 to 1.86)1.06(0.68 to 1.66)
Peer behaviours
 Peer smoking41.56(25.13 to 68.74)
 Views films with friends2.19(1.10 to 4.38)
  • * All ordinal and continuous variables scaled so 0 represents lowest risk category and 1 represents the highest response category.