Table 2

Adjusted OR of transition to different severity states

Severity state in any future year
Risk factors in the index yearTransition to moderate/severe/death
vs mild
Transition to severe/death
vs mild/moderate
Transition to death
vs all other levels
OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Age1.01 (1.01 to 1.01)<0.00011.01 (1.01 to 1.01)<0.00011.05 (1.04 to 1.06)<0.0001
Sex
 FemaleReference
 Male1.12 (1.07 to 1.16)<0.00011.01 (0.96 to 1.05)0.8121.73 (1.41 to 2.12)<0.0001
SES
 LowReference
 Middle0.98 (0.93 to 1.04)0.5080.94 (0.89 to 1.00)0.0590.59 (0.44 to 0.79)0.000
 High0.98 (0.94 to 1.03)0.4450.88 (0.84 to 0.93)<0.00010.56 (0.44 to 0.72)<0.0001
Comorbidity
 CCI score=0Reference
 CCI score=11.05 (0.99 to 1.12)0.1011.08 (1.01 to 1.16)0.0200.72 (0.54 to 0.96)0.025
 CCI score=21.11 (0.99 to 1.24)0.0801.32 (1.17 to 1.49)<0.00011.94 (1.32 to 2.87)0.001
 CCI score ≥31.05 (0.92 to 1.19)0.4661.48 (1.29 to 1.7)<0.00014.24 (2.96 to 6.09)<0.0001
PDC of asthma controller medications
 PDC <50%Reference
 50% ≤PDC <80%1.07 (1.02 to 1.12)0.0081.22 (1.16 to 1.29)<0.00011.10 (0.88 to 1.39)0.400
 PDC ≥80%1.20 (1.11 to 1.3)<0.00011.26 (1.17 to 1.35)<0.00010.87 (0.62 to 1.22)0.414
  • Bold text indicates statistical significance with a p value of less than 0.05.

  • CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; PDC, proportion of days covered.