Table 1

Baseline characteristics in PPC and non-PPC groups, including univariate analysis of risk factors associated with developing PPC

VariablesValueTotal (n=670)PPC (n=88)Non-PPC (n=582)p Value
AgeMean (±SD)66.4 (±10.8)67.1 (±9.6)66.4 (±11)0.547
FEV1% predictedMean (±SD)80.2 (±20.8)75.8 (±20.7)80.94 (±20.7)0.034
BMIMean (±SD)26.9 (±8.1)27.2 (±5.6)26.9 (±8.4)0.757
GenderMale377 (66%)57 (65%)320 (55%)0.086
Female293 (44%)31 (35%)262 (45%)
ASA score144 (7%)5 (6%)39 (7%)0.004
2298 (44%)32 (36%)266 (46%) 
3313 (47%)44 (50%)269 (46%)
415 (2%)7 (8%)8 (1%)
Preoperative activity level≤400 m185 (27%)35 (42%)150 (27%)0.005
>400 m465 (73%)49 (58%)416 (73%)
Type of surgeryLobectomy497 (74%)64 (73%)433 (74%)0.651
Subsegmentectomy/wedge111 (16%)15 (17%)96 (16.5%)
Pneumonectomy37 (6%)3 (3.5%)34 (6%)
Exploratory/biopsy13 (2%)3 (3.5%)10 (2%)
Sleeve8 (1%)2 (2%)6 (1%)
Chest wall4 (1%)1 (1%)3 (0.5%)
VATSYes62 (9%)9 (10%)53 (9%)0.735
No608 (91%)79 (90%)529 (91%)
AnalgesiaEpidural254 (38%)27 (31%)227 (39.4%)0.443
 Intrathecal morphine146 (22%)23 (26%)123 (21.4%)
Morphine Infusion63 (9.5%)9 (10%)54 (9.3%)
PCA50 (7.5%)4 (5%)46 (8%)
Paraverterbral146 (22%)24 (27%)122 (21.2%)
Other5 (1%)1 (1%)4 (0.7%)
PathologyNSCLC477 (71.2%)64 (73%)413 (71%)0.598
Small cell LC10 (1.5%)3 (3%)7 (1%)
Carcinoid27 (4%)4 (4.5%)23 (2%)
Metastatic disease69 (10.3%)6 (7%)63 (11%)
Benign73 (11%)11 (12.5%)62 (11%)
Other14 (2%)014 (4%)
NSCLC staging05 (1%)05 (1%)0.762
IA120 (26%)13 (22%)107 (26%)
IB112(24%)10 (17%)102 (25%)
IIA94 (20%)14 (23.3%)80 (20%)
IIB53 (11%)9 (15%)44 (11%)
IIIA77 (16%)13 (22%)64 (16%)
IIIB5 (1%)05 (1.3%)
IV4 (1%)1 (1.7%)3 (0.7%)
COPDYes176 (26%)38 (43%)138 (24%)<0.001
No494 (74%)50 (57%)444 (76%)
COPD severityMild (<80)51 (29%)12 (32%)39 (29%)0.904
(FEV1% predicted)Moderate (50–80)95 (54%)19 (61%)76 (56%)
Severe (30–50)27 (16%)6 (16%)21 (15%)
IHDYes85 (13%)15 (17%)70 (12%)0.665
No585 (87%)73 (83%)512 (88%)
HTNYes279 (42%)37 (42%)242 (42%)0.934
No391 (58%)51 (58%)340 (58%)
DiabetesYes80 (12%)14 (16%)66 (11%)0.220
No590 (88%)74 (84%)516 (89%)
Smoking statusCurrent149 (22%)35 (40%)114 (20%)<0.001
Ex391 (68.5%)48 (54%)343 (59%)
Never129 (22.5%)5 (6%)124 (21%)
  • ASA, American College of Anaesthetists; BMI, body mass index; HTN, hypertension; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; NSLC, non-small cell lung cancer; PCA, patient-controlled analgesia; PPC, postoperative pulmonary complication; VATS, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.