Table 3

Associations*† (β (95% CI)) of lung function at age 7 with childhood concentrations of dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites‡ measured at follow-up visits between 0.5 and 5 years of age

nDEsp ValueDMsp ValueTotal DAPsp Value
Highest FEV1 for children who had one, two, or three manoeuvres
224−0.18 (−0.32 to −0.05)0.009−0.10 (−0.23 to 0.04)0.1−0.14 (−0.29 to 0.00)0.05
Highest FEV1 for children who had at least two manoeuvres
207−0.16 (−0.30 to −0.03)0.02−0.12 (−0.25 to 0.02)0.08−0.16 (−0.30 to −0.02)0.03
Highest FVC for children who had one, two, or three manoeuvres
203−0.18 (−0.34 to −0.02)0.03−0.08 (−0.24 to 0.09)0.4−0.12 (−0.29 to 0.05)0.2
Highest FVC for children who had at least two manoeuvres
175−0.17 (−0.33 to 0.00)0.06−0.13 (−0.29 to 0.04)0.1−0.17 (−0.34 to 0.01)0.06
Highest FEF25–75 for children who had one, two or three manoeuvres
203−0.36 (−0.64 to −0.08)0.01−0.09 (−0.37 to 0.20)0.6−0.18 (−0.49 to 0.12)0.2
Highest FEF25–75 for children who had at least two manoeuvres
175−0.26 (−0.55 to 0.03)0.08−0.06 (−0.34 to 0.23)0.7−0.14 (−0.44 to 0.17)0.4
  • *Coefficients reflect change per 10-fold increase in creatinine-adjusted (nmol/g creatinine) metabolite concentrations assessed by the area under the curve.

  • †Adjusted for child's sex, age, age squared, log height, maternal smoking during pregnancy, season of birth (mould/wet/pollen/dry), mean daily PM2.5 during the first 3 months of life, breast feeding duration, signs of moderate/extensive mould at home visit (6 or 12 months), distance (≤150 m) from highway (6 or 12 months), pets at home (5–7 years), household food insecurity score (7 years), maternal education, season of spirometry and technician.

  • ‡Diethyl (DE) phosphate, dimethyl (DM) phosphate and total dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites.