Table 1

Patient characteristics by GSAQ score tertiles

GSAQ tertiles
Variables, mean (SD)Q1Q2Q3p Value
N182117
GER score range0–46–1516–223
Female, n (%)4 (22)9 (43)9 (53)0.182
Race, n (%)0.934
 White9 (50)10 (48)7 (41)
 Black9 (50)10 (48)9 (53)
 Other0 (0)1 (5)1 (6)
Hispanic/Latino, n (%)1 (6)2 (10)2 (12)0.857
Gestational age at birth, weeks37.7 (4.2)38.8 (2.1)37.8 (4.0)0.903
Age of asthma diagnosis, years4.8 (4.5)4.5 (3.7)4.5 (3.8)0.860
BMI ≥95th percentile, n (%)*8 (44)14 (67)13 (76)<0.05
Anthropometric measures†
 BMI percentile70.2 (24.0)79.3 (24.0)86.9 (20.2)0.036
 Waist circumference in cm72.9 (18.5)75.4 (15.5)86.3 (16.4)0.028
 Waist-to-height ratio0.46 (0.12)0.49 (0.08)0.55 (0.11)0.027
 Abdomen-to-height ratio0.48 (0.11)0.51 (0.09)0.57 (0.11)0.012
Environment
 ETS quantitative, median (IQR)‡1 (1, 1)1 (1, 2)2 (1, 4)0.016
What triggers asthma? n (%)
 Tobacco smoke9 (50)9 (43)13 (76)0.122
 Allergen11 (61)16 (76)10 (59)0.904
 Viruses (colds)8 (44)14 (67)14 (82)0.019
Co-morbidities
 GORD2 (11)8 (38)6 (35)0.109
 Allergic rhinitis15 (83)19 (90)16 (94)0.301
 Depression/anxiety3 (17)3 (14)4 (24)0.044
Family history*
 Obesity9 (50)16 (76)16 (94)0.003
 Diabetes0 (0)6 (28)5 (29)0.027
 Asthma8 (44)12 (57)14 (82)0.022
Controller treatments, n (%)
 ICS-LABA8 (44)10 (48)9 (53)0.944
 LTRA8 (44)10 (48)5 (29)
Usage for asthma
 Urgent care visits in past year1.5 (1.54)1.1 (1.5)1.8 (2.1)0.591
 Steroid bursts in past year0.83 (0.98)0.86 (1.2)1.2 (1.9)0.391
  • Values are means (SD) unless noted.

  • *Cochran–Armitage Trend test for categorical variables.

  • †Analysis of variance test for linear trend used for continuous variables. ‡Kruskal–Wallis test.

  • BMI, body mass index; ETS, environmental tobacco smoke; GORD, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; GSAQ, GERD Symptoms Assessment Questionnaire; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; LABA, long-acting β-agonists; LTRA, leukotriene receptor antagonist.

  • Bolded figures represent statistical significance at the level of p<0.05.