Table 3

Gastro-oesophageal symptoms among lean and obese children with asthma

VariablesBMI 20–65thBMI ≥95thp Value*
2123
GSAQ score, mean (SD)10.9 (14.6)43.0 (54.5)0.012
Any symptoms, n (%)15 (71)22 (96)0.042
≥2 symptoms, n (%)8 (38)19 (83)0.005
GSAQ range0–590–223
Abdominal pain
 Frequency scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 1)0.114
 Severity scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 2)0.112
 Composite ISS0.6 (1.5)3.4 (6.7)0.072
Chest pain/heartburn
 Frequency scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 2)0.045
 Severity scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 2)0.059
 Composite ISS0.5 (1.2)4.8 (9.0)0.042
Difficulty swallowing
 Frequency scale0 (0, 0)1 (0, 2)0.001
 Severity scale0 (0, 0)2 (0, 2)0.004
 Composite ISS0.7 (1.7)4.8 (7.3)0.021
Night-time pain/awakening0 (0, 0)0 (0, 0)0.025
 Frequency scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 0)0.025
 Severity scale0 (0)1.7 (4.7)0.110
Composite ISS
Nausea
 Frequency scale0 (0, 1)1 (0, 3)0.026
 Severity scale0 (0, 2)2 (0, 3)0.020
 Composite ISS1.2 (2.1)4.8 (6.0)0.015
Vomiting/regurgitation
 Frequency scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 2)0.119
 Severity scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 3)0.098
Composite ISS0.8 (2.4)5.9 (10.4)0.042
Burping/belching
 Frequency scale1 (0, 4)2 (1, 7)0.145
 Severity scale1 (0, 1)1 (1, 3)0.062
 Composite ISS5.4 (8.9)10.5 (14.6)0.187
Choking when eating
 Frequency scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 1)0.140
 Severity scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 2)0.084
 Composite ISS0.8 (2.7)2.8 (6.7)0.214
 Pain after eating
 Frequency scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 2)0.144
 Severity scale0 (0, 0)0 (0, 2)0.154
  Composite ISS0.6 (1.6)4.1 (7.9)0.062
  • *p Value represents Student's t test for parametric continuous variables or Fisher's exact test for categorical values.

  • Values are medians (IQR) unless specified.

  • BMI, body mass index, frequency scale ranges from 0 to 7+ events per week; severity scale ranges from 1 to 7 with a higher score indicating worse symptoms; GSAQ, GERD Symptoms Assessment Questionnaire; ISS, individual symptom score.

  • Bolded figures represent statistical significance at the level of p<0.05.