Table 2

Characteristics of all PBP cases with hospital controls, cases with hospital controls from Soweto only and cases with community controls

Cases with hospital controlsCases with hospital controls, Soweto onlyCases with community controls
Cases
n=1326
Controls
n=2075
Cases
n=893
Controls
n=1453
Cases
n=889
Controls
n=2628
Characteristicn (%)n (%)Matched p valuen (%)n (%)Matched p valuen (%)n (%)Matched p value
Black race1266 (95.5)1979 (95.4)0.062883 (98.9)1426 (98.1)0.149879 (98.9)2564 (97.6)0.028
Male sex765 (57.7)1191 (57.4)0.824525 (58.8)832 (57.3)0.604521 (58.6)1343 (51.2)<0.001
Weight-for-age Z score <2332 (25.1)558 (26.9)0.524225 (25.2)419 (28.9)0.096224 (25.2)145 (5.5)<0.001
Any chronic condition*41 (3.1)85 (4.1)0.27717 (1.9)44 (3.0)0.14717 (1.9)17 (0.6)0.002
Prior hospitalisation265 (20.0)295 (14.2)<0.001155 (17.4)185 (12.8)0.003151 (17.0)228 (8.7)<0.001
Prior pneumonia hospitalisation144 (11.1)100 (4.8)<0.00186 (9.9)65 (4.5)<0.00183 (9.6)99 (3.8)<0.001
Low birth weight†296 (22.7)326 (15.8)<0.001191 (21.8)223 (15.4)<0.001187 (21.5)386 (14.7)<0.001
Mother HIV-infected432 (33.3)620 (30.4)0.094288 (32.8)428 (30.1)0.303286 (32.6)601 (22.9)<0.001
TB contact112 (8.5)165 (8.0)0.52453 (6.0)75 (5.2)0.35353 (6.0)143 (5.5)0.632
Exclusive breast fed <4 months698 (52.8)1102 (53.2)0.939464 (52.2)770 (53.1)0.721464 (52.4)1635 (62.2)<0.001
Brick house870 (66.1)1355 (65.5)0.198615 (69.6)973 (67.2)0.244612 (69.6)2064 (78.5)<0.001
Indoor water supply474 (35.8)699 (33.8)0.664309 (34.6)517 (35.7)0.688302 (34.0)1234 (47.0)<0.001
Flush toilet1020 (77.0)1479 (71.4)0.012770 (86.3)1194 (82.3)0.010763 (85.9)2339 (89.0)0.011
Coal/wood primary fuel47 (3.6)103 (5.0)0.7970 (0)2 (0.1)0.9730 (0)6 (0.2)0.973
Primary care giver smokes86 (6.5)117 (5.6)0.61548 (5.4)89 (6.1)0.44747 (5.3)29 (1.1)<0.001
Day care216 (16.4)436 (21.0)<0.001165 (18.5)330 (22.8)0.024156 (17.6)515 (19.6)0.091
Mother education <11386 (30.0)686 (33.2)0.021214 (24.8)433 (29.9)0.005211 (24.5)543 (20.7)0.016
Crowding‡685 (51.8)1092 (52.7)0.654443 (49.8)794 (54.8)0.013443 (50.0)814 (31.0)<0.001
At least one dose of DTP1258 (94.9)1954 (94.1)0.231855 (95.7)1371 (94.4)0.111851 (95.7)2527 (96.2)0.494
PCV doses§
 0144 (10.9)234 (11.3)75 (8.4)133 (9.2)76 (8.6)157 (6.0)
 1394 (29.7)579 (27.9)0.318229 (25.6)368 (25.3)0.674234 (26.3)614 (23.4)0.191
 2476 (35.9)729 (35.1)0.961340 (38.1)519 (35.7)0.978338 (38.0)1066 (40.6)<0.001
 3296 (22.3)498 (24.0)0.325237 (26.5)401 (27.6)0.371232 (26.1)755 (28.7)<0.001
 416 (1.2)35 (1.7)0.17312 (1.3)32 (2.2)0.0529 (1.0)36 (1.4)0.004
  • *Includes parental report of malnutrition, asthma, heart disease, cerebral palsy, sickle cell, kidney disease.

  • †Birth weight <2500 g.

  • ‡More than two people sleep in the room with the child.

  • §Using zero doses as referent group.

  • PBP, presumed bacterial pneumonia; PCV, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.