Table 2

Participant demographics based on existence of pulmonary cysts

No pulmonary cysts (N=2433)Pulmonary cysts (N=200)p value*†
Age, years58.9±12.0 (range 34.0–92.0)63.0±12.0 (range 40.1–89.8)<0.001
Female sex, n (%)1229 (51)96 (49)0.5
Body mass index‡28.6±5.4 (N=2420)27.1±4.7<0.001
Smoking status, n (%)
 Never1188 (49)80 (40)0.1
 Former1088 (45)108 (54)0.2
 Current150 (6) (N=2426)12 (6)0.7
Pack-years17.9±18.1 (N=1238)19.8±17.6 (N=120)0.9
Coronary artery calcium score§190.2±530.9 (N=2303)167.9±344.7 (N=188)0.006
Respiratory symptoms, n (%)
 Chronic cough168 (7)8 (4)0.8
 Shortness of breath with minor exertion273 (11)18 (9)0.051
  • Plus–minus values are mean±SD.

  • *p values were calculated with the use of mixed effect models or generalised estimation equations to account for familial relationships in the Framingham Heart Study, as described previously.15

  • †p values for body mass index, smoking status, pack-years, coronary artery calcium score and respiratory symptoms were adjusted for age and sex. In addition, the result for coronary artery calcium score was adjusted for the presence of emphysema; the results for respiratory symptoms were adjusted for smoking status and pack-years.

  • ‡The body mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres.

  • §Coronary artery calcium scores were calculated by the Agatston method.27