Table 2

Expression pattern of miRNAs in patients with COPD, smokers and never-smokers

MiRNAMost recent annotation*Accession numberDisease stageSmoker vs never-smokerCOPD vs smokerCOPD vs never-smoker Increasing emphysema severityTissue/cell-typeTargetsReferences
 miR-218hsa-miR-218–5pMIMAT0000275no COPDBronchial airway epitheliumMAFG (validated)17
GOLD I and IIInduced sputum10
GOLD I to IVBAL fluid18
 miR-146ahsa-miR-146a-5pMIMAT0000449GOLD I to IVFibroblastsCOX-2 (predicted)33
GOLD I and IIInduced sputum10
GOLD I, II and IVLung tissue27
 let-7chsa-let-7c-5pMIMAT0000064GOLD I and IIInduced sputumTNFR-II (predicted)10
 miR-101hsa-miR-101-3pMIMAT0000099GOLD IV ↑†Lung tissueCFTR (validated), MPK-1 (predicted)44
 miR-15bhsa-miR-15b-5pMIMAT0000417GOLD I, II and IVLung tissueSMAD7 (validated)27
 miR-144hsa-miR-144-3pMIMAT0000436GOLD I, II and IVLung tissueCFTR (validated)27
 miR-199a-5phsa-miR-199a-5pMIMAT0000231not specified ↓†Peripheral blood monocytesATF6, NF-κB1,RELA, GRP78, IRE1, HIF-1α (validated)49
GOLD I to IVLung tissue57
GOLD I to IVT-regulatory cells50
 miR-34bhsa-miR-34b-3pMIMAT0004676GOLD I and IIInduced sputum10
 miR-452hsa-miR-452-5pMIMAT0001635No COPDAlveolar macrophagesMMP12 (predicted)23
 miR-34chsa-miR-34c-5pMIMAT0000686GOLD I and IIInduced sputum10
 miR-34chsa-miR-34c-5pMIMAT0000686GOLD I and II: Mild versus moderate emphysema (measured by KCO)Lung tissue63
 miR-638hsa-miR-638MIMAT0003308GOLD IV (measured by Lm on CT)Lung tissue52
  • *MiRBase release 21.

  • †Patients with COPD were compared with controls (the article does not specify whether the controls were smokers or non-smokers).

  • ATF6, activation of transcription factor 6; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; GRP78, glucose response protein 78; HIF-1α, hypoxia inducible factor 1α; IRE1, inositol requiring enzyme 1α; KCO, lung carbon monoxide transfer coefficient; Lm, mean linear intercept; MAFG, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue G, avian; miR, microRNA; MMP-12, matrix metallopeptidase 12; MPK-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1; NF-κB1, nuclear factor κB1; RELA, V-Rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homologue A; SMAD7, mothers against decapentaplegic homologue 7; TNFR-II, tumour necrosis factor receptor II.