Table 1

Clinical symptoms and relevant findings at presentation in 496 consecutive normotensive patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic PE in the emergency department

CharacteristicAll patients (N=496)Lactate-negative group (N =361)Lactate-positive group (N =135)
Age, years (mean+SD)69±16.568±1773±14.5*
Age >80 years124 (25) 83 (23)41 (30)
Female gender254 (51) 185 (51)69 (51)
Risk factors for VTE
 History of VTE64 (13)49 (14)15 (11)
 Cancer† 122 (25)81 (22)41 (30)
Comorbid diseases
 Chronic cardiopulmonary disease44 (8.8) 34 (9.4)10 (7.4)
Clinical symptoms and signs at presentation
 Simplified PESI >1361 (73)253 (73)108 (80)*
 Heart rate >110/min83 (17)48 (13)35 (26)*
 Arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation <90%197 (40)135 (37)62 (46)
 SBP 90–100 mm Hg37 (5.6)25 (6.9)12 (8.9)
 Shock index >141 (8.3)23 (6.4)18 (13.3)*
Laboratory findings
 Serum lactate, mmol/L (mean+SD)1.74±1.751.11±0.393.40±2.65*
 Elevated cardiac troponin‡117 (24) 70 (19)47 (35)*
 RV dysfunction (echocardiogram)201 (40) 127 (35)74 (55)*
  • Values are number (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *p<0.05 compared with lactate-negative group.

  • †Active or under treatment in the last year.

  • ‡See definitions, tests and cut-off points in the Methods section.

  • PESI, PE Severity Index; RV, right ventricle; SBP, systolic blood pressure; VTE, venous thromboembolism.