Table 5

Associations of lung function parameters in preschoolers aged 4.5 years with recent and current residential exposure levels of air pollutants

FVC (mL)FEV1 (mL)PEF (mL/s)FEF25–75 (mLl/s)
ExposureCoef(95% CI)p ValueCoef(95% CI)p ValueCoef(95% CI)p ValueCoef(95% CI)p Value
Base model*
 Recent exposure† (n=607)−29.1(−71.8 to 13.4)0.179−27.7(−65.1 to 9.7)0.14611.7(−94.5 to 117.9)0.829−48.0(−131.8 to 35.7)0.260
 Current exposure‡ (n=561)−14.4(−43.7 to 14.9)0.335−5.6(−31.3 to 20.0)0.666−8.1(−80.2 to 64.1)0.8264.2(−53.1 to 61.6)0.885
 Recent exposure† (n=607)−19.7(−48.3 to 8.8)0.175−16.2(−41.3 to 8.8)0.20414.3(−57.0 to 85.5)0.694−26.9(−83.2 to 29.2)0.347
 Current exposure‡ (n=561)−6.4(−21.3 to 8.5)0.398−1.0(−14.0 to 12.1)0.885−12.3(−48.9 to 24.4)0.5121.0(−28.1 to 30.2)0.944
Adjusted model§
 Recent exposure† (n=567)−36.1(−80.7 to 8.5)0.113−32.3(−71.3 to 6.6)0.104−2.6(−113.1 to 107.9)0.963−63.1(−150.8 to 24.7)0.159
 Current exposure‡ (n=524)−20.8(−51.7 to 10.0)0.186−9.2(−36.1 to 17.7)0.504−22.7(−97.9 to 52.4)0.553−6.4(−66.6 to 53.8)0.835
 Recent exposure† (n=567)−23.9(−53.6 to 5.7)0.113−19.1(−45.0 to 6.8)0.1485.9(−67.5 to 79.4)0.874−35.9(−94.3 to 22.5)0.228
 Current exposure‡ (n=524)−8.3(−23.8 to 7.1)0.289−1.8(−15.3 to 11.6)0.790−17.8(−55.3 to 19.8)0.353−2.9(−33.0 to 27.2)0.849
  • *Base model adjusted for area of study, child's sex, and child`s age, height and weight at assessment and ethnic background.

  • †One-year average before lung function testing.

  • ‡One-week average before lung function testing.

  • §Base model further adjusted for birth weight, maternal social class, maternal education level, maternal smoking in pregnancy and paternal smoking in pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke 0–14 months, and lower respiratory tract infections 0–14 months.

  • Coef (95% CI), Coefficient and 95% CI for an IQR increase in exposure estimated by linear regression models.

  • NO2, nitrogen dioxide; NOX, nitrogen oxides; PEF, peak expiratory flow.