Table 2

Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of lung cancer and COPD as a function of 100 µmol/L (1.68 mg/dL) serum uric acid levels and including an interaction with smoking status

 Lung cancerCOPD
Adjusted IRRs*(95% CI)p ValueAdjusted IRRs*(95% CI)p Value
Ex-smoker3.49(1.70 to 7.16)2.97(2.17 to 4.06)
Light-moderate (1–19 per day)19.54(8.93 to 42.79)12.89(9.06 to 18.35)
Heavy (≥20 per day)58.85(25.27 to 137.08)<0.00119.69(13.29 to 29.17)<0.001
Serum uric acid (per 100 µmol/L)†1.000.84 to 1.19NS1.040.96 to 1.11NS
Non-smoker X uric acid1.00(Reference)1.00(Reference)
Ex-smoker X uric acid1.04(0.86 to 1.26)1.01(0.93 to 1.10)
Light-moderate smoker X uric acid0.87(0.70 to 1.09)0.86(0.78 to 0.96)
Heavy smoker X uric acid0.72(0.56 to 0.92)<0.0010.85(0.76 to 0.95)<0.001
  • Wald tests were used to calculate p values for categorical variables and interaction terms

  • *Adjusted for age, sex, social deprivation, year of uric acid test, smoking status, alcohol, height, weight, blood pressure, non-European ethnicity and particle pollution.

  • †Conversion factor: µmol/L×0.01 681 mg/dL

  • NS, non-significant.