Table 1

Demographic, clinical, functional and radiological characteristics of participants

COPD (n=23)Smokers (n=20)Non-smokers (n=20)p Value
Age, years64.8±9.754.6±10.561.2±18.20.023
Gender (M/F), n21/213/77/130.0001
Smoking history
 Pack/year, median (IQR)60 (40–75)35 (30–50)00.03*
 Current smokers (%)39%85%0N/A
Lung function
 Tlco %58.6±13.578.4±18.681.4±18.70.002
 Kco %66.3±1579.8±1182.3±9.70.006
 MEF %, median (IQR)26 (20.3–38)83 (69–96)96 (88.5–103)<0.0001
Chest CT scan
 Presence of emphysematous changes, n (%)19 (82.6%)8 (40%)00.023*
 Visual scoring of emphysema (tES)1.76±1.30.5±0.5200.001*
 Quantitative scoring, median (IQR)1.99 (0.4–5.65)0.29 (0.16–0.43)00.012*
  • *Mann–Whitney test.

  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; Kco, carbon monoxide transfer coefficient; MEF, maximum expiratory flow; tES, total emphysema score; Tlco, carbon monoxide lung transfer factor.