Table 3

Comparison of costs and QALYs from devices against control

Cost component (£)No treatment n=78SP1
 Device (fixed)£21£128£350
 Measurement for device (fixed)£110.37
 Fitting of device (fixed)£92.04
 Additional visit if required (average across all patients)£5.98
 Device lifespan (months) (fixed)121218
 Cost of intervention subtotal pro rata (4 weeks) (fixed)*£1.62£9.85£28.64
Summary of costs (£)MeanSEMeanSEMeanSEMeanSE
 Resource use cost (4 weeks) Mean (SD)†£78.50£19.97£73.02£10.47£53.58£8.05£76.25£24.40
 Total cost (4 weeks) Mean (SD)†£78.50£19.97£74.64£10.47£63.43£8.05£104.89£24.39
 Total cost difference intervention vs control−£3.87£21.38−£15.08£20.62£26.39£27.94
Health-related quality of life measure
 EQ-5D-3L Utility score0.850.20.860.20.860.230.870.19
 EQ-5D-3L QALY score (4-week trial period)‡0.06490.00170.06580.00170.06580.00190.06670.0017
 QALY score difference intervention vs control0.000940.001050.000880.001230.001770.00147
Cost effectiveness measure 
 Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio −£4093−£17 104£14 876
 Net monetary benefit (willingness-to-pay=£20 000)£23£33£9
  • *Device and fitting costs are pro rata to be comparable over the 4-week trial period.

  • †Resource use and total costs by intervention estimated using a mixed effects model controlling for baseline data. All costs in 2011/2012 (£).

  • ‡QALY scores calculated using area under the curve method to represent the true QALY score for the 4-week intervention period and to be consistent with the costs presented.

  • bMAD, bespoke mandibular advancement device; QALY, quality-adjusted life year.