Table 3

Demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with exacerbations and those without in the non-COPD group (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC≥0.7 and no DDX asthma/emphysema/chronic bronchitis/COPD) subgroups (n=3379)

 Did not experience exacerbation in the past 12 monthsExperienced exacerbation in the past 12 monthsp Value*
N=3249N=130
Demographics
 Age, mean(SD)56.43 (10.6)55.02 (10.8)0.140
 Male, n (%)1426 (43.9)44 (33.85)0.024
 BMI, mean(SD)27.7 (5.6)27.9 (5.6)0.711
 Education, mean(SD)15.61 (3.4)14.85 (3.6)0.271
Smoking of cigarettes
 Smoking status, n (%)
  Never1588 (48.9)80 (61.5)0.005
  Former1238 (38.1)61 (46.9)0.043
  Current350 (10.8)19 (14.6)0.169
 Pack years of cigarettes, mean(SD)19.88 (19.35)17.6 (18.1)0.302
 Passive smoking, n (%)266 (8.19)11 (8.46)0.911
Worked in dusty job (>1 years), n (%)826 (25.42)41 (31.5)0.118
Respiratory symptoms, n (%)
 Chronic cough260 (8.0)23 (17.7)<0.001
 Chronic phlegm180 (5.5)18 (13.9)<0.001
 Wheezing562 (17.3)83 (63.9)<0.001
 Breathlessness616 (18.96)117 (90.0)<0.001
Pulmonary function
 % Δ FEV1i†>12%, n (%)2950 (90.8)115 (88.5)<0.001
 Post-BD FEV1 (L), mean(SD)3.00 (0.79)2.84 (0.69)0.011
 Post-BD FVC (L), mean(SD)3.80 (1.02)3.60 (0.86)0.011
 Post-BD % Predicted FEV1 (L), mean (SD)99.09 (14.8)96.92 (14.4)<0.001
 Post-BD % predicted FVC (L), mean (SD)94.16 (14.7)92.69 (14.7)0.001
 Post-BD FEV1/FVC, mean (SD)79.15 (4.7)79.21 (4.7)0.890
  • *%Δ FEV1i=(post FEV1 – pre FEV1)/pre FEV1.

  • †p Value is calculated for comparison between no exacerbation and exacerbation groups by Kruskal Wallis and χ2 tests.

  • BD, bronchodilator; BMI, body mass index; DDX, self-reported doctor's diagnosis.