Table 2

Treatment and outcome in children treated for MDR-TB (n=149 unless otherwise stated)

Feature/outcomeVariableNumber (%) unless otherwise indicated
Admitted to hospital103 (69.1)
Median duration of admission in months (n=103; IQR)5 (3–7)
Treated with injectable drugs (n=142)*94 (66.2)
Median duration of injectable drug use (n=94; IQR)4 (4–6)
Median duration of total treatment (n=137; IQR)†13 (11–18)
Median weight gain (IQR; kg)3 months (n=115)0.6 (0.2–1.5)
6 months (n=102)1.4 (0.7–2.2)
12 months (n=84)2.9 (1.0–4.0)
Median number of months to culture conversion (n=40)‡1 (0.5–2)
OutcomeCure36 (24.2)
Probable cure§101 (67.8)
Transferred out1 (0.7)
Lost to follow up8 (5.4)
Died¶3 (2.0)
  • *Excludes patients who died or absconded from hospital prior to the end of the prescribed period of injectable use.

  • †Excludes patients who died, were transferred out or were lost to follow-up.

  • ‡For children with an initial culture-positive sputum sample with at least one follow-up culture (excludes culture-positive extrapulmonary cases).

  • §Includes eight patients who stopped their therapy before indicated but were clinically well at follow-up and one patient for whom all drugs were stopped due to severe DRESS syndrome but found to be well after 3 years of follow-up and discharged.

  • ¶Three children died: 14-year-old girl, confirmed pre-XDR pulmonary TB and extensive adult-type disease, absconded from hospital after 3 weeks and was lost to follow-up, found to have died 12 months later; 6-month-old boy, presented with abdominal and pulmonary confirmed MDR-TB, measles and HIV with severe immunosuppression, died after 3 weeks in hospital; 9-year-old boy, presented with extensive, confirmed adult-type pulmonary pre-XDR-TB and HIV, CD4 count 7, died after 3 months from sepsis and hypokalaemia (TB culture negative at that point).

  • DRESS, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms; MDR, multidrug resistant; TB, tuberculosis; XDR, extensively drug resistant.