Table 5

Comparison of characteristics for children with severe and non-severe MDR-TB disease (n=149 unless otherwise stated)

CharacteristicChildren with severe disease (n=45)Children with non-severe disease (n=104)OR (95% CI)p Value
Median age (IQR; months)54 (18–142)31.5 (17.5–53.5)0.012*
Male gender22 (48.9)47 (45.2)1.16 (0.57 to 2.34)0.679†
Coloured ethnicity18 (40.0)41 (39.4)1.02 (0.50 to 2.10)0.948†
Median delay (IQR; days)39 (9–89)2 (0–41.5)<0.001*
MDR-TB source case identified23 (51.1)88 (84.6)0.19 (0.08 to 0.44)<0.001†
Multiple source cases12 (26.7)24 (23.1)1.21 (0.54 to 2.71)0.640†
Previous TB6 (13.3)7 (6.7)2.13 (0.67 to 6.82)0.191†
TST positivity (n=111)16/24 (66.7)74/87 (71.2)0.35 (0.12 to 1.01)0.043†
Mean weight-for-age z score (SD; n=136)−2.11 (1.61)−0.76 (1.32)<0.001‡
Extrapulmonary involvement18 (40.0)93 (10.6)5.64 (2.24 to 14.2)<0.001†
Bacteriologically confirmed TB diagnosis33 (73.3)26 (25.0)8.25 (3.37 to 20.2)<0.001†
Smear positive (n=46)§19/29 (65.5)4/17 (23.5)6.18 (1.38 to 27.7)0.007†
Severe chest radiographic changes (n=148)35/45 (77.8)41/103 (39.8)5.29 (2.23 to 12.5)<0.001†
HIV infection (n=146)20/44 (45.5)12/102 (11.8)6.25 (2.50 to 15.6)<0.001†
Hospital admission42 (93.3)61 (58.7)9.87 (2.64 to 36.9)<0.001†
Injectable TB drug use (n=142)¶39/41 (95.1)55/101 (54.5)16.3 (3.27 to 81.3)<0.001†
Median duration of injectable drug in those treated with injectables (n=94)¶6 (4–6)4 (3–5)<0.001*
Median total duration of therapy (IQR; n=137)**18 (18–20)12 (10–16)<0.001*
Mortality3 (6.7)0 (0)0.008†
  • *p Values between medians were calculated using the Mann–Whitney test.

  • †ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using the Mantel–Haenszel test with p values calculated using the χ2 (or Fisher's exact) test.

  • ‡p Values between means were calculated using Student's t test.

  • §Of children who were culture positive for respiratory specimens.

  • ¶Excludes children who died or absconded from hospital prior to the end of the prescribed period of injectable use.

  • **Excludes children who died, were transferred out or were lost to follow-up.

  • MDR, multidrug resistant; TB, tuberculosis; TST, tuberculin skin test.