Table 1

Relative risk of recurrent episodes of bronchiolitis or croup at 12 months of age in infants born to mothers from the clinical versus FeNO group employing regression analyses

Bronchiolitis (multiple versus one or none episode)
ClinicalFeNOUnivariate regression N=128Multivariate regression* N=122
n/N (%)n/N (%)OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Clinical vs FeNO group10/61 (16.4%)1/67 (1.5%)0.08 (0.01 to 0.62)0.0160.08 (0.01 to 0.66)0.019
Female vs male35/61 (57.4%)35/67 (52.3%)1.02 (0.29 to 3.54)0.975
Gestational age (weeks)38.3 (2.7)†38.9 (2.2)†0.81 (0.67 to 0.97)0.0210.81 (0.67 to 0.99)0.043
Mother LABA during pregnancy12 /61 (19.7%)28/67 (41.8%)1.95 (0.56 to 6.82)0.295
Mother exacerbated during pregnancy30/61 (49.2%)20/67 (29.9%)3.01 (0.57 to 7.35)0.093
Mother Caesarean section19/58 (32.8%)18/64 (28.1%)0.85 (0.21 to 3.40)0.817
Croup (multiple versus one or none episode)
ClinicalFeNOUnivariate regression N=129Multivariate regression* N=128
n/N(%)n/N(%)OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Clinical vs FENO group7/62 (11.3%)1/67 (1.5%)0.12 (0.01 to 0.99)0.0500.15 (0.02 to 1.33)0.089
Female vs male36/62 (58.1%)36/67 (53.7%)1.38 (0.31 to 6.03)0.672
Gestational age (weeks)38.1 (3.0)†39.0 (2.2)†0.87 (0.71 to 1.05)0.154
Mother LABA during pregnancy13/62 (21.0%)28/67 (41.8%)0.18 (0 to 1.21)0.084
Mother exacerbated during pregnancy31/62 (48.1%)19/67 (28.4%)5.25 (1.02 to 27.14)0.0483.88 (0.73 to 20.71)0.113
Mother caesarean section20/59 (33.9%)18/64 (28.1%)2.38 (0.56 to 10.08)0.238
Bronchiolitis or croup combined (multiple versus one or none episode)
ClinicalFeNOUnivariate regression N=127Multivariate regression* N=121
n/N (%)n/N (%)OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Clinical vs FENO group16/61 (26.2%)2/66 (3.0%)0.09 (0.02 to 0.40)0.0020.11 (0.02 to 0.53)0.006
Female vs male35/61 (57.4%)35/66 (53.0%)1.02 (0.37 to 2.78)0.968
Gestational age (weeks)38.8 (2.7)39.3 (2.2)0.78 (0.65 to 0.93)0.0060.79 (0.64 to 0.98)0.030
Mother LABA during pregnancy12/61 (19.7%)28/66 (42.4%0.81 (0.27 to 2.46)0.714
Mother exacerbated during pregnancy30/61 (49.2%)19/66 (28.8%)5.27 (1.74 to 15.93)0.0033.38 (1.02, 11.25)0.047
Mother caesarean section19/58 (32.8%)18/63 (28.6%)1.55 (0.55 to 4.37)0.409
  • *Variables p<0.10 included in multivariate regression with stepwise removal for best fit.

  • †Mean (SD).

  • FeNO, fractional exhaled nitric oxide; LABA, long-acting β-agonist.