Table 2

Death rates, adjusted HRs, and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% CIs for the associations of spirometric Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades and ABCD groups with all-cause mortality among participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the HUNT2 Lung Study

COPD classificationPerson-yearsObserved deathsDeath rate*(95% CI)Age-adjusted HR†Multi-adjusted HR‡(95% CI)‡Expected deathsSMR§(95% CI)§
Women
GOLD grades¶ (n=584)739327336.93(32.80 to 41.58)
  GOLD 123665924.94(19.32 to 32.19)1.001.00(Reference)790.75(0.59 to 0.95)
  GOLD 2434115535.70(30.50 to 41.79)2.322.29(1.66 to 3.16)911.70(1.46 to 1.99)
  GOLD 35835289.12(67.91 to 116.96)6.486.23(4.15 to 9.36)114.72(3.62 to 6.08)
  GOLD 4102768.55(32.68 to 143.78)6.906.97(3.05 to 15.91)15.15(2.45 to 9.92)
ABCD groups** (n=468)591821736.67(32.10 to 41.89)
  Group A366711531.36(26.12 to 37.65)1.001.00(Reference)961.19(0.99 to 1.44)
  Group B12684233.12(24.47 to 44.81)1.221.12(0.78 to 1.62)271.56(1.18 to 2.08)
  Group C4532861.85(42.70 to 89.58)2.082.47(1.62 to 3.79)112.55(1.62 to 3.94)
  Group D5303260.41(42.72 to 85.42)2.142.43(1.62 to 3.66)122.62(1.77 to 3.82)
Men
GOLD grades¶ (n=956)10 75756452.43(48.28 to 56.94)
  GOLD 1325910833.14(27.44 to 40.02)1.001.00(Reference)1190.91(0.76 to 1.08)
  GOLD 2614232753.24(47.77 to 59.34)1.511.44(1.15 to 1.80)2461.33(1.20 to 1.47)
  GOLD 3118911092.51(76.74 to 111.51)2.032.04(1.56 to 2.68)621.77(1.47 to 2.12)
  GOLD 416719113.58(72.45 to 178.07)4.284.24(2.57 to 7.00)53.47(2.70 to 4.39)
ABCD groups** (n=736)835043652.22(47.54 to 57.36)
  Group A543724244.51(39.24 to 50.49)1.001.00(Reference)1961.24(1.10 to 1.39)
  Group B13107254.97(43.63 to 69.25)0.970.89(0.68 to 1.16)611.18(0.95 to 1.47)
  Group C10416966.27(52.34 to 83.90)1.081.10(0.84 to 1.44)521.32(1.04 to 1.68)
  Group D5625394.38(72.10 to 123.53)1.631.70(1.25 to 2.29)271.98(1.50 to 2.59)
  • *Per 1000 person-years.

  • †Adjusted for age (as the time scale).

  • ‡Adjusted for age (as the time scale), smoking (never, former, current, unknown) and education (<10, ≥10 years, unknown).

  • §Standardised according to sex, 5-year age bands and 5-year calendar periods.

  • ¶COPD defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70 and graded as follows; GOLD 1=per cent predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1) ≥80; GOLD 2=50≤ ppFEV1 <80; GOLD 3=30≤ ppFEV1 <50; GOLD 4=ppFEV1 <30.

  • **ABCD groups defined as follows; A=dyspnoea ≤grade 1, GOLD 1 or 2, and ≤1 exacerbation last 12 months; B=dyspnoea ≥grade 2, GOLD 1 or 2, and ≤1 exacerbation last 12 months; C=dyspnoea ≤grade 1, and GOLD 3 or 4 or ≥2 exacerbations last 12 months; D=dyspnoea ≥grade 2, and GOLD 3 or 4 or ≥2 exacerbations last 12 months.