Table 3

Clinical presentation of HCAP and CAP patients

Cases (HCAP)Controls (CAP)p Value
Fever, n (%)1616816871NS
Hypothermia, n (%)167420.005
Chills, n (%)662892390.016
Cough, n (%)1616817674NS
Purulent phlegm, n (%)67517351NS
Digestive symptoms, n (%)38162511NS
Dyspnoea, n (%)1687115565NS
Altered mental status, n (%)632734140.001
PaO2 <65 mm Hg1467212266NS
Bacteraemia2410.1198.0NS
Multilobar infiltration, n (%)57244720NS
ICU admission, n (%)104115NS
NIV, n (%)104125NS
MV, n (%)7352NS
Respiratory complications3715.53816.0NS
 Distress72.9718.4NS
 Empyema20.8410.5NS
 Pleural effusion, n (%)2610.92668.4NS
 Cavitation20.812.6NS
Non-respiratory complications9238.662260.005
 Renal failure3313.8208.4NS
 Septic shock114.662.5NS
 Arrhythmia114.672.91.00
 Diarrhoea93.862.50.785
 Others2811.8239.70.72
  • CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; HCAP, healthcare-associated pneumonia; ICU, intensive care unit; MV, mechanical ventilation; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; PaO2, arterial oxygen tension.