Table 4

Crude and adjusted rate ratios of serious pneumonia associated with current use and dose of the different ICS among patients with COPD

ICS exposureCasesControlsCrude rate ratioAdjusted* rate ratio95% CI
Number of subjects20 344197 705
No use in the year prior to index date, %46.4761.151.001.00Reference
 Current use,%†24.5312.242.792.011.93 to 2.10
  Low dose‡0.370.321.611.461.15 to 1.87
  Medium dose11.306.502.421.871.77 to 1.97
  High dose12.865.423.312.222.10 to 2.34
 Current use, %5.174.831.451.171.09 to 1.26
  Low dose0.330.371.211.050.81 to 1.36
  Medium dose2.652.421.491.231.12 to 1.35
  High dose2.182.031.451.131.02 to 1.26
Other ICS§
 Current use,%7.844.952.011.411.33 to 1.51
  Low dose2.412.031.491.201.09 to 1.33
  Medium dose2.331.352.211.521.37 to 1.69
  High dose3.101.562.531.571.43 to 1.73
  • *Adjusted for all of the factors listed in table 1.

  • †Current use refers to a prescription in the 60 days prior to the index date.

  • ‡Current daily dose in fluticasone equivalents, in μg/day; high: 1000 or more; moderate: 500–999; low: less than 500.

  • §Beclomethasone, flunisolide or triamcinolone.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid.