Table 1

Summary of assays performed at start and end of exacerbation in order of sequence performed

Symptoms and clinical observations▸ Symptom score ▸ Pulse ▸ Respiratory rate ▸ SpO2 ▸ Temperature ▸ Blood pressure ▸ Weight
Lung physiology▸ Lung clearance index ▸ Spirometry
Pulmonary markers of inflammation▸ Exhaled breath condensate pH, ammonia, nitrite ▸ Sputum 24 h weight, solid content, DNA content and rheology ▸ Total and differential sputum cell count ▸ Sputum calprotectin, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α, MMP-9, MPO, neutrophil elastase, TIMP-1 ▸ Microbiological culture
Systemic markers of inflammation▸ Blood white cell count ▸ Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, Calprotectin, CRP
CT assessment of lung structure*▸ Extent of bronchiectasis ▸ Severity of bronchiectasis ▸ Airway wall thickness ▸ Small mucus plugs ▸ Large mucus plugs ▸ Air trapping ▸ Consolidated lung ▸ Ground glass lung
  • *The order in which the CT was performed was not fixed, some patients having this prior to the other assessments.

  • CRP, C-reactive protein; IL, interleukin; IFN-γ, interferon γ; MMP9, matrix metalloprotease 9; MPO, myeloperoxidase; RANTES, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted; SpO2, oxygen saturations; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor α.