Table 4

Bundles for lifestyle interventions to reduce the risk of CAP in adults

Risk factorEvidenceRecommendation
SmokingRisk of CAP increased in current and former smokers (9 studies)19–23 38 42 46 47Smoking cessation
Alcohol consumptionRisk of CAP increased with high consumption or history of alcohol abuse (4 studies)21 23 38 47Reduce alcohol consumption
Nutritional statusBeing underweight was generally associated with an increased risk of CAP (4 studies)23 38 44 47Dietary advice to ensure good nutritional status
Contact with childrenRegular contact with children increased the risk of CAP (3 studies)23 38 44Avoid contacts with children with lower respiratory tract infections
Dental hygieneRisk of CAP decreased in individuals with a recent (within past year) dental visit (2 studies)23 38Ensure regular dental visits
Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniaeCurrent guidelines88 89Ensure compliance with guidelines
  • CAP, community-acquired pneumonia.