Table 3

Crude and adjusted rate ratios of serious pneumonia associated with current use, dose and past use of inhaled corticosteroids among patients with COPD

Inhaled corticosteroid exposurePneumonia casesControlsCrude rate ratioAdjusted* rate ratio95% CI
Number of subjects20 344197 705
No use in the year prior to index date, %46.4761.151.001.00Reference
Current use, %†37.5322.012.301.691.63 to 1.75
 Low dose‡3.122.721.501.241.13 to 1.36
 Medium dose16.2810.282.151.661.59 to 1.74
 High dose18.149.012.731.861.77 to 1.94
Past use, %16.0016.841.281.151.10 to 1.20
Time since stopping, %
 61–180 days9.959.961.351.191.13 to 1.26
 181–270 days3.293.761.171.080.99 to 1.17
 271–365 days2.763. to 1.18
  • *Adjusted for all of the factors listed in table 1.

  • †Current use refers to a prescription of any one of inhaled fluticasone, budesonide, beclomethasone, flunisolide or triamcinolone in the 60 days prior to the index date.

  • ‡Current daily dose in fluticasone equivalents, in μg/day; high: 1000 or more; moderate: 500–999; low: less than 500.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.